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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2018| May-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 14, 2018

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Factors related to the clinical application of orthodontic mini-implants
Panagiota Ntolou, Aikaterini Tagkli, Eudoxie Pepelassi
May-June 2018, 10(3):103-110
Orthodontic mini-implants use has been increased. The purpose of this review was to analyze the factors related to the clinical application of orthodontic mini-implants. For the present study, the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched for available data. The literature search was performed on the articles published from 2003 up to 2017. International peer-reviewed journal articles related to factors which are associated with the clinical application of orthodontic mini-implants were searched. Successful application of mini-implants depends on proper selection of insertion site, proper selection of mini-implant (length, diameter, tapering), proper insertion (site, predrilling, angle, primary stability, injury, and absence of adjacent anatomic structures), absence of inflammation, and proper orthodontic loading. Insertion site and mini-implant characteristics are selected based mainly on cortical bone thickness, bone density, available bone, adjacent anatomic structures, and soft-tissue thickness. Sites of high cortical bone thickness, high cancellous bone density, sufficient available bone, and thin attached gingiva are ideal for mini-implant insertion. Extremely thick cortical bone requires attention. In thick cortical bone, shorter mini-implants can be selected. For sites of low cortical bone thickness and low cancellous bone density, longer and wider mini-implants are indicated. Very thin cortical bone and very low cancellous bone density negatively affect the prognosis of mini-implants. Very narrow implants entail fracture risk. Predrilling is preferred at high bone quality sites, whereas it is used with caution or even be avoided at low bone quality sites. Angled placement might be considered to increase bone-to-implant contact and reduce root injury risk. Loading time depends on insertion torque. Successful application of mini-implants is based on proper insertion site and mini-implant characteristics selection, proper insertion, absence of inflammation, and proper orthodontic loading. Careful assessment of all the factors that might compromise mini-implant success is important for their clinical application.
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The association between the use of new oral contraceptive pills and periodontal health: A matched case–control study
Leena Smadi, Aiman Zakaryia
May-June 2018, 10(3):127-131
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on the periodontal status of the women using them. Materials and Methods: During the period from January 2016 to June 2017, 139 oral contraceptive users (Group A) and 142 nonusers (Group B) were examined by a blinded examiner using a mouth mirror and a 15-mm conventional periodontal probe (Hu-Friedy). The dental examination included the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival index, sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). A full-mouth examination excluding the third molars was performed at four sites per tooth (mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual, and distolingual). The results of these examinations were compared between the two groups to identify significant differences. Results: Both groups were comparable with regard to their demographic data. Group A had a significantly higher mean OHI-S score than Group B (0.43 vs. 0.29, respectively). The gingival index score was also higher in OCP users than in nonusers (0.78 vs. 0.37, respectively). The SBI score was 0.72 in Group A and 0.41 in Group B, demonstrating a significant difference between OCP users and nonusers. The CAL score was 1.62 in Group A versus 1.11 in Group B, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: The use of combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal condition of patients, resulting in increased gingival disease. This adverse effect can be enhanced by the use of newer generations of OCPs, especially in high-risk populations.
  2 4,178 303
The effect of oral probiotic consumption on the caries risk factors among high-risk caries population
Regina T. C. Tandelilin, Elastria Widita, Dewi Agustina, Rajiv Saini
May-June 2018, 10(3):132-137
Aim: Oral health plays an important role in maintaining overall systemic health, and therefore, good oral health is essential for the well-being of humans. Dental caries prevalence continues to increase in many populations worldwide. Recent years, dental caries continues to be common chronic oral diseases worldwide including many Asian countries. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of utilizing oral probiotics on the caries risk factors among high-risk caries population. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six participants who had a high risk of caries were randomized under control and probiotic administered test group for 60 days. Caries experience, oral hygiene status, plaque accumulation, and saliva parameters related to caries were measured at days 0, 30, and 60. Results: Among all variables, ANOVA analysis showed that oral probiotic consumption significantly reduced the plaque accumulation between days of observation in the treated group (P < 0.05) While calculus index was significantly differing from day 0 to 30 and plaque index from day 0 to 60 in the paired t-test (P < 0.05). Nonsignificant difference was found when comparing both variables in the treated group to the untreated group (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that the regular use of oral probiotics reduces the plaque accumulation and calculus formation among the treated participants, and its application could be proposed as an effective agent to inhibit dental plaque accumulation as well as calculus in high caries risk participants.
  2 3,672 276
Oral health-related quality of life and the index of orthodontic treatment need to evaluate the association of patients' self-perceived need and normative need toward orthodontic treatment
Renjith George, Renu Sarah Samson, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Preethy Mary Donald, Wang Liang Hui, Pang Khai Ling, Kalpana Saseendran
May-June 2018, 10(3):115-120
Aims: To assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with malocclusion and to measure the association of OHRQoL with orthodontic treatment need. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 290 participants aged 13 to 30 years, attending orthodontic clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC). The participants were asked to complete the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), after which clinical examinations were conducted to assess normative orthodontic treatment needs using the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Results: A total of 290 adolescent and young adults participated in this study. The mean overall score for OHIP-14 was 11.8(±8.0). There was no significant association of oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between different age groups, gender, ethnicities and education levels. There was no significant association between age, gender, ethnicity, education level and orthodontic treatment need. Also, there was no significant association of OHIP-14 score between no treatment need and little treatment need. However, OHIP-14 score was significantly higher in borderline treatment need compared to no treatment need (6.06, 95% CI 1.07, 11.04), little treatment need (3.95, 95% CI 1.75, 6.16) while high treatment need had significantly higher OHIP-14 score than borderline treatment need (7.13, 95% CI 3.46, 10.80). Conclusion: Malocclusion has a significant negative impact on OHRQoL. There is a significant association in mean overall OHIP score when comparing high orthodontic treatment needs and with no treatment needs. This study did not find any significant association in orthodontic treatment needs in relation to age groups, gender, ethnicities and education level.
  1 17,317 217
The effect of conventional oral health education versus animation on the perception of Saudi males in primary school children
Abdulhadi Ibrahim Ali Alhayek, Mousa Jafar Alsulaiman, Hussain Ali Almuhanna, Mohammed Abdullah Alsalem, Mohammed Abdulaziz Althaqib, Ahmed Abdulaziz Alyousef, Jarah Naif Alabdali, Sultan Awad Alqahtani, Shahzeb Hasan Ansari
May-June 2018, 10(3):121-126
Aim: Dental caries among school children in Saudi Arabia is a significant concern since the prevalence is high, prevention starts with education of the publicity and delivery of the correct information regarding the preventive measures and the nature of the dental disease. Several studies regarding oral health education through community programs revealed a good result in reducing the prevalence and incidence of the oral diseases. Our study aims to assess new methods in oral health education for primary school children. Materials and Methods: This study is an interventional study, convenient sample method of 750 students selected with no intellectual disability from seven primary schools in Saudi Arabia; students' ages range from 6 to 9 years old. In the conventional method, two dental students trained in the demonstration through a PowerPoint presentation illustrated with diagrams and a jaw model. Animation video prepared through online website includes all the points presented in the conventional education. A questionnaire designed to evaluate all provided information with ten questions to assess the knowledge of the student after immediately oral health education. The statistical test used was the nonparametric Chi-square test. Results: A total of 750 students were involved, and the same number of questioner collected in both methods, 12 questionnaires have been excluded six from the conventional and six from the animation either the student did not answer, or the questionnaire is not readable. Data from 738 questionnaires were available (369 conventional and 369 animations). Overall, the statistical analysis show proximate result for both groups of methods was noticed with each to have merit and demerit. Conclusions: Oral health education and motivation is part of the dentistry, and the dental team work, the animation or the conventional method both have been noticed to be effective in delivering the relevant information the children must know about the oral health.
  1 4,220 385
Class II deep bite correction with herbst appliance assisted with mini screws
Hosam Ali Baeshen
May-June 2018, 10(3):152-155
This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a 36-year-old female with Class II Division 1 malocclusion associated with deep overbite. The treatment was based on nonextraction therapy using MBT: McLaughlin, Bennett and Trevesi. Orthodontic bracket system slot 0.022 straight-wire appliance. Deep bite correction was assisted with labial mini screws. A Herbst appliance with Class II elastics was used for canine and molar Class II correction and overjet reduction. Treatment goals were achieved in 22 months, and the results included a normal overjet, Class I occlusion, competent lips, and an acceptable facial profile.
  - 4,609 216
An assessment of the self-satisfying smile among different professionals
Ankit Chaudhari, Dinesh Kumar Bagga, Poonam Agrawal, Hiten Kalra, Disha Sirohi
May-June 2018, 10(3):111-114
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the variation in self-assessment of smile among dental and nondental professional groups. Materials and Methods: We carried a cross-sectional, analytical study on dental and nondental male professionals. Spontaneous photograph of each smiling participant was taken and showed to all of them. They were asked to judge their own smile according to their smile-line height. Five-point response scale was used, varying from 1 (very unfavorable) to 5 (very favorable); a nonlinear quadratic regression analysis was used to determine objective smile-line height and judgment of the smile esthetics. Results: Overall fit of the regression analysis model of dental students was poor (P = 0.075), as was for nondental students (P = 0.727). The smile-line height was a significant predictor of the self-assessment of the dental students and not significant for nondental students. Conclusion: The perception of participants having dental knowledge and those not having dental knowledge vary, and thus, we suggest that patients' self-perception must be given consideration while setting a goal for outcome.
  - 2,583 136
Microleakage assessment of a new modified glass ionomer cement-nanozirconia-silica-hydroxyapatite restorative material
Habibah Mat Hussin, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Nor Ainon Maziah Ghazali, Arbaz Sajjad
May-June 2018, 10(3):138-142
Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro microleakage of new modified glass ionomer cement (GIC)-nanozirconia-silica-hydroxyapatite (GIC-nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA) hybrid material by comparing the depth of microleakage with conventional GIC (Fuji IX). Materials and Methods: Forty samples of standardized oval-shaped cavity preparation (4 mm × 3 mm × 2 mm) on buccal or lingual surfaces of freshly extracted human premolar and molar teeth were prepared. The samples were divided in two groups (n = 20) by simple random sampling method and restored with the new modified GIC-nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA hybrid material and Fuji IX (control), respectively; following the manufacturer's recommendations. All samples were then submitted to thermocycling (500 cycles at 5°C–55°C). The external surfaces of each tooth were coated with nail varnish except a 1 mm wide margin surrounding the restoration. Samples were then immersed in 2% methylene blue at room temperature for 24 h before rinsed under running water. Each sample was sectioned mesiodistally before microleakage evaluation was done using a stereomicroscope under × 20 magnifications and graded accordingly. Results: Differences in microleakage scores between materials were compared statistically using independent t-test. The new material shows significantly more microleakage compared to Fuji IX at P < 0.05. Conclusion: As conclusion, within the limitation of this study, the new modified GIC-nanoZrO2-SiO2-HA hybrid material was found to have more microleakage than conventional GIC.
  - 2,651 199
A finite element study on effect of cement type and preparation angle on mandibular molar crown restorations' stresses
Rami M Galal, Salah A Yossef, Mawadda Adel Alsairafi, Tariq Muhammad Alkhashem
May-June 2018, 10(3):143-147
Aim: The goal is to assess the efficacy of cement type, preparation angle regarding stresses generated on a crown used for covering mandibular first molar under maximum compressive masticatory force. Materials and Methods: Two three-dimensional (3D) finite element models have been created in the study where molar roots and preparation were modeled by engineering CAD/CAM and crown was 3D scanned. The model components were assembled in ANSYS environment with simplified bone geometry. Four analyses were done on the two models to test cement types (Glass ionomer and resin cement) and preparation angles (10° and 18°). Results: Resin cement showed less von Mises stress by about 4% than the glass ionomer at high preparation angle (18°). With preparation angle of 10°, resin cement showed superior behavior by receiving about 30% less von Mises stress in comparison to glass ionomer. Conclusions: Thin cement layer of 40 μm thickness has no effect on the underneath structures. The E-max crown above resin cement and 18° preparation angle may be better than the same combination with 10° preparation angle for roots and bone. On the other hand, 10° preparation angle reduced the crown stresses dramatically.
  - 1,792 105
The efficacy of anticalculus mouth rinse in moderate gingivitis patients with and without professional intervention
Regina T. C. Tandelilin, Alma Linggar Jonarta, Elastria Widita, Rajiv Saini
May-June 2018, 10(3):148-151
Aim: Gingivitis has been defined as the reversible dental plaque-induced inflammation of the gingiva without detectable bone loss or clinical attachment loss. It is frequently encountered in dental practice and affected people of all ages and describes the condition of the dental soft tissue. There is always a correlation between the presence of calculus and the prevalence of gingivitis. The aim of this clinical study was to assess the efficacy of anticalculus mouthwash on reduction of plaque and calculus with and without professional intervention. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 volunteers with clinical signs of moderate gingivitis were selected and after a washout period of 2 weeks divided into groups, with and without any professional intervention. The patients were instructed to use anticalculus mouth twice daily. Clinical assessment was carried out using the plaque index based on Silness and Loe method, gingival index based on Loe and Silness method, and calculus index of Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified at baseline, 1 month, and 2-month days of the anticalculus mouthwash use. Statistically analysis was carried out using the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney test for comparative analysis. Results: The study proved that anticalculus mouthwash was effective in lowering all the clinical scores both with and without any professional intervention. However, the optimal results were achieved when combined with professional scaling. Conclusion: Anticalculus mouthwash is effective in controlling plaque-induced gingivitis and lowering clinical scores.
  - 5,575 167