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   2016| December  | Volume 8 | Issue 12  
    Online since March 1, 2017

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Types of Post and Core Systems
Nithin Shetty
December 2016, 8(12):1136-1139
Since the advent of post and core systems, dentists have regularly accepted the traditional cast and post and core as choice of treatment modality to restore a badly broken root canal treated tooth. The important question being, if at all the cast, post is indicated in every case. Other concept being that a cast post compared to a prefabricated post improves the strength of a root canal treated tooth which has been weakened by decay or over preparation. Literature indicates the ultimate strength of the remaining tooth structure is defined by the bulk of the remaining dentin as it improves the fracture resistance of the teeth. However, a prefabricated post causes lesser tooth fracture when subjected to stress as compared to cast post system. This review aims to present the different post systems as an alternate to conventional cast post and their advantage and disadvantage.
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  2,865 589 -
Mucograft® as an Alternative Treatment in the Management of Multiple Gingival Recessions: Case Report
Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Deborah Fernanda Furman, Luis Henrique Chaves, Carmen Lucia Mueller Storrer, Felipe Rychuv Santos, Camilo Andres Villabona Lopez
December 2016, 8(12):1123-1127
A variety of surgical procedures can be performed for the treatment of gingival recession, including the subepithelial connective tissue graft. Due to the morbidity reported by patients, alternative techniques using biomaterials has been frequently discussed. The objective of this study was to report the clinical follow-up of root coverage with coronally positioned flap associated with Mucograft® (collagen matrix) for 24 months. The fine gingival biotype tends to be delicate, possessing a small zone of keratinized mucosa. This type of thickness should be taken into special consideration since it directly influences in the aesthetics and the emergence profile. The gingival recession heights and the thickness of the tissue were measured initially and after 4, 9, and 24 months. 1 year post-operative, partial root coverage (22.5%) and gain in the thickness (100%) of the gingival tissue was observed. Although the root coverage with a coronally positioned flap associated with Mucograft® for this clinical case was not effective, a significant increase in thickness of the gingival tissue that received the collagen matrix was observed; thus, it was considered a viable treatment option and suitable for soft tissue augmentation. This clinical case, the Mucograft® was effective for the thickness of the gingival tissue; thus it is considered a viable treatment option and suitable for periodontal tissue augmentation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  2,020 124 -
Cephalometric Norms for East Indian Population using Burstone Legan Analysis
Nivedita Sahoo, Rajat Mohanty, Pritam Mohanty, Tushar Nayak, Smruti Bhushan Nanda, Anand Garabadu
December 2016, 8(12):1076-1081
Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the cephalometric hard and soft tissue cephalometric for orthognathic surgery (COGS) norms for East Indian subjects and to compare with the Caucasians. Materials and Methods: 200 adults of East Indian population (100 males and 100 females), with an age range of 18-30 years were selected for the study. The subjects included had well-balanced pleasing facial profile, no craniofacial abnormality, Angle's Class I molar relationship on both sides with minimum to moderate anterior crowding, and no previous history of orthodontic treatment. The COGS analysis values for the East Indian population was established and compared with the Caucasians. Results: All the cephalometric parameters except the anterior cranial base, facial convexity angle, maxillary protrusion, lower anterior face height, upper posterior dental height, chin depth; maxillary length, and mandibular body length were comparable among both the groups. The COGS soft tissue parameters such as the mandibular prognathism, upper lip protrusion, and lower lip protrusion were higher in the East Indian subjects as compared to the Caucasians. Conclusion: The cephalometric parameters in the East Indian population are significantly different than those of the Caucasian population. These racial differences which are evident in this study should be kept in mind while charting out plan for orthognathic surgery for the East Indian population.
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  1,880 212 -
Upper Molar Intrusion with Mini-implants to Correct Anterior Skeletal Open Bite: A Case Report
Mohammed A Al-Labani, Sakhr A Murshid, Fuad Lutf Almotareb, Mohammed M Al-Moaleem
December 2016, 8(12):1132-1135
This article reported a treatment of an adult male patient, his age was 17 years 3 months, his chief complaint was difficulty in chewing, pronunciation, and esthetics. He was diagnosed of having 6 mm of anterior skeletal open bite on skeletal Class II, overjet 5 mm, negative overbite - 4 mm, and tongue trust habit. The patient was successfully treated using mini-implants anchorage, 022 MBT appliance, and muscles exercises. Our results suggested that using mini-implant anchorage, muscles exercises, and repositioning the brackets as needed delivered good final results in skeletal anterior open bite cases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,599 147 -
Hypodontia - A Dentoevolutionary Study
Yesha V Jani, Purva Butala, Vinay Rao, Steffy Macwan, Gopal Hirpara, Aman Sayeed
December 2016, 8(12):1057-1064
Background: The human body undergoes growth and development from birth till adulthood. The disturbances arising in this process of development cause various anomalies. An example of such developmental dental anomaly is failure to develop the normal complement of 32 teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 51 patients, who were relevant to this study, were selected from the outpatient department of the institute. Intraoral examination was done for clinical confirmation of the absence of tooth/teeth and for any associated oral deformity. Intraoral peri-apical and/or orthopantamogram were taken according to the number and type of missing tooth/teeth and to rule out impacted teeth. Results: Analysis of the data suggests that 0.66% patients had hypodontia and males had a higher predilection. The most common missing tooth was mandibular second premolar followed by mandibular incisors. Oral and facial malformations are commonly associated with hypodontia. Conclusion: Hypodontia is a congenital condition causing many physiologic effects. It should be diagnosed as early as possible to prevent harmful sequelae. Successful outcomes in the management of patients with hypodontia depend on careful diagnosis and treatment planning.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,579 116 -
Assessment of Crestal Bone Loss Surrounding the Implant before Prosthetic Loading of Dental Implant Systems: A Pilot Study
Deepak M Vikhe, Suraj D Tambe, Rheisyll Mascarenhas, Shilpa Bawane, Ratnadeep Jadhav, Rahul Kathariya
December 2016, 8(12):1110-1113
Background: Dental implantology is technique to replace missing teeth. Crestal bone loss along implant surface jeopardizes its longevity and success of treatment. The bone must remain healthy after dental implant is placed for the dental implant to last. However, the bone surrounding a dental implant is sometimes lost. There are several reasons for bone loss around a dental implant. In most cases, the bone loss starts at the top of the crest and progresses around the dental implant to form a saucer type defect. Materials and Methods: About 10 two-stage implants of life care implant system and 10 two-stage implants of Noble biocare implant system were placed in patients in fourth quadrant. Digital orthopantomograph (OPG) was taken on day of implant placement. After 6 months, at time of second stage surgery, the implant stability was evaluated by the periotest instrument. The crestal bone loss was evaluated on digital OPG. Same procedure for each system was carried out. Results: About 6 months after the implant placement, radiographic evaluation on digital OPG showed a mean crestal bone loss of 1.6 mm on the mesial side of implant and 1.8 mm on distal side of implant for Noble biocare system and radiographic evaluation on digital OPG showed a mean crestal bone loss of 0.7 mm on the mesial side of implant and 0.6 mm on distal side of implant for life care system. Conclusion: A study was conducted to evaluate crestal bone loss, occurring 6 months after implant placement in two implant systems, before loading it. More stress should be given on developing implant collar design to reduce the initial crestal bone loss. The smooth polished collar design of the implant may have contributed to crestal bone loss.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,560 116 -
Evaluation of Skeletal Maturation in Lingayat Children
K Kiran Kumar, Inderpreet Singh, B Sunil Kumar, R Haranadh Babu, Shameem Karpe, Pradeep Raj
December 2016, 8(12):1089-1094
Background: The success of orthodontic treatment depends on the time at which treatment is planned, which further depends on parameters like skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 110 boys and 110 girls of Lingayat community, aged 11-13 years. For all the subjects, left hand and wrist radiographs, chronological age, height, weight, and date of onset of menarche nine for girls were recorded. Results: Both Lingayat boys and girls showed advanced skeletal age (SA) than chronological age and were found to mature earlier than the standard British and the Australian (Melbourne) population. Lingayat girls had a mean of 4 months advanced SA than the Lingayat boys. Conclusion: Our study can act as standard indicator for assessing skeletal maturity on which timing of orthodontic treatment can be planned.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,575 86 -
Oral Health and Related Factors: An Update
Soussan Irani
December 2016, 8(12):1140-1144
Oral health is a state of being free from chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, periodontal disease, tooth decay, and tooth loss. Oral health can affect many aspects of a person's life. Professional oral health support can help in developing and or improving caries preventive interventions. In addition, oral health education, early referral to a dental practice, dietary regulations promote community oral health status. This review article aimed to provide a brief update to oral health.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,510 131 -
Impact of Orthodontic Treatment Needs on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among the Early Adults: A Questionnaire Study
Patel Jay, Santosh Kumar Goje, Kulkarni Narayan, Patel Riddhi, Dave Chinmay, Shah Aakash
December 2016, 8(12):1095-1100
Background: The importance of evaluating oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among orthodontic patients relates to the impact of dental esthetics on social acceptance and self-concept. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different orthodontic treatment needs on the OHRQoL in early adults. Methods: The study sample comprised 100 young adult orthodontic patients (50 men and 50 women; age range, 18-22 years) selected from institutional OPD. Each participant of the study was assessed for orthodontic treatment need and OHRQoL by using Orthodontic Treatment Need Index (IOTN) and the shortened version of Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire. Result: Orthodontic patients who had little or no, borderline, and actual need for orthodontic treatment represented 13%, 11%, and 76% of the total sample, respectively. Orthodontic treatment needs significantly affected mouth aching, uncomfortable to eat food, self-consciousness, tension, unsatisfactory diet, meal interruption, embarrassment, irritability, taste, and relaxation in both men and women (P < 0.001). Pronunciation, life satisfaction, and ability to do jobs or function were not significantly associated with orthodontic treatment needs in either sex. Conclusions: These findings of this study emphasize the impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL of young adults.
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  1,514 121 -
Age Estimation in Odisha Population Using Cemental Annulation Count: A Comparison of Field, Phase-contrast, and Polarized Microscopy
Bala Subramanya Goutham, Sujatha Ramachandra, Kanika Singh Dhull, Harish Kumar, Cheshta Walia, Shekar Poosarla
December 2016, 8(12):1065-1068
Background: Cementum is a hard avascular connective tissue that covers roots of the teeth which is deposited in layers throughout life. Microscopically each layer is seen as a set of alternating dark and light bands called cemental annulations. The objective of the present study is to examine the correlation between the number of cemental lines and age of an individual, and also to find the efficacy of bright field microscopy (BFM), phase-contrast (PH), and polarized (POL) microscopy for counting these annulations. Materials and Methods: Extracted teeth from patients of known age devoid of any pathology were selected, and longitudinal ground sections were prepared. These ground sections were observed under BFM, POL, and PH microscopy. Microphotographs were further magnified using a computer. The dark lines on the cementum were counted using Image Pro Express 6.0 software. Results: PH microscopy showed better correlation (0.9952) between actual and estimated ages in comparison to BFM (0.9760) and POL microscopy (0.9833). Conclusion: Our study showed that PH microscopy can improve the precision of age estimation in forensic identification.
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  1,517 110 -
Pattern of Malocclusion in Orthodontic Patients: A Multi Centre Study
Pritam Mohanty, Subha Soumya Dany, Swati Saraswata Acharya, Nivedita Sahoo, Surya Kanta Das, Suravi Chatterjee, Debapreeti Mohanty
December 2016, 8(12):1105-1109
Background : There has been a consistent effort and inclined interest of researchers to study varied patterns of malocclusion prevailing in various parts of India, yet the pattern of malocclusion of the orthodontic urban population in Odisha is not well known. The study aimed to ascertain the pattern of malocclusion and to provide quantitative information on the pattern of dentofacial characteristics among urban orthodontic population of Odisha. The objective of the study is to yield information about the variation in pattern and types of malocclusion in the urban orthodontic population in Odisha which in return would benefit the specialist to deliver quality treatment. Materials and Methods: A prospective hospital-based detailed investigation of 1 year was planned to include both male and female patients having permanent dentition in the age group of 12-30 years visiting the Department of Orthodontics of Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Institute of Dental Sciences, Bhubaneswar and SCB Dental College, Cuttack, Odisha. The descriptive and inferential Pearson Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to statistically justify the potential differences in the variation of malocclusion. Results: Out of 1207 subjects, 933 (77.3%) subjects were presented with Angle's Class I malocclusion and 252 (20.88%) subjects were with Angle's Class II malocclusion, whereas Angle's Class III malocclusion was seen only in 22 (1.82%) subjects. Conclusion: Angle's Class I malocclusion was the most predominant type of malocclusion in this population and Angle's Class III being the least prevalent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,511 112 -
Bond Strength of Adhesives to Dentin Surface Treated with Chlorhexidine
Amal Abdullah Almozher, Mohammed Alomari
December 2016, 8(12):1049-1056
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of two types of adhesives (total and self-etch) to dentin surface treated with 2% of chlorhexidine (CHX) conditioner. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 freshly extracted human sound premolar teeth were selected, washed and cleaned, and then divided randomly into three main groups; each tooth cusp was cut off until the first layer of dentin under the groove between the two cusps was exposed (superficial dentin). Then, 48 teeth were randomly selected to be used in Group I (control group) and Group II (n = 24 each). The remaining 24 teeth were selected to be used in Group III which were cut off until the deep dentine between the first layer of exposed dentin and pulp horn was exposed. Then, adhesives were applied on the exposed dentin in Group I without application of CHX intermediate. In Group II, 2% CHX was applied to the superficial dentin surface for 1 min and washed away before application of adhesives. In Group III, 2% CHX was applied to deep dentin surface for 1 min and washed away before applying adhesives. Instron machine was used to assess the SBS. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: The control group showed the higher mean SBS than the two groups as well as, bonding to superficial dentin in Group I and Group II showed higher mean bond strength when compared with deep dentin in both self-etch and total-etch groups. In general, self-etch showed higher bond strength than total etched adhesives. Conclusion : Bond strength of adhesives without using CHX was the highest compared with using CHX as dentine surface conditioner. However, self-etch was stronger than total etch, and also adhesives were weakest in deep than superficial dentin.
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  1,487 125 -
Quest for Biofriendly Xylene Substitutes in Histopathology: A Comparative Study
Snehashish Ghosh, Roopa S Rao, Shwetha Nambiar, Vanishri C Haragannavar, Dominic Augustine, SV Sowmya, Shankargouda Patil
December 2016, 8(12):1101-1104
Background: Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon widely used in histopathology laboratory. However, exposure to xylene is a well-documented occupational hazard. This study intended to find a natural, non-toxic, economical substitute for xylene to minimize its hazardous effects and make the histopathological laboratory an biofriendly environment. Objectives: (1) To evaluate the efficacy of extra virgin olive oil and refined sunflower oil (RSO) as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histopathological staining, (2) To compare the efficacy of olive oil and RSO as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent with regard to xylene. Materials and Methods: Commercially available fresh goat tissue was procured and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 48 h. The tissues were divided into three experimental groups (Groups I, II, and III). Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for all the three groups. Group I was processed and stained using xylene as clearing and deparaffinizing agent. Groups II and III were processed and stained using olive oil and RSO, respectively. Evaluation was done by three pathologists and the entire procedure was blinded. Statistical analysis was accomplished by Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square test, and Kappa statistics. Results: Results showed both the oils had the ability to clear and deparaffinize tissues. Extra virgin olive oil was comparatively better, it maintained the tissue integrity, and the overall staining quality was also better when compared to RSO. Conclusion: To conclude, extra virgin olive oil and RSO can be used as a biofriendly substitute to xylene in histopathological laboratory.
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  1,489 111 -
A Retrospective Clinicopathological Study of Salivary Gland Tumors with Particular Reference to Histological Types, Site, Age, and Sex Distribution
Smita Bussari, Taiminaz Mueez Shedam, Priyanka Debta, Nahid Ayub Shaikh, Niranjan R Yeli, Prabhakar A Jeergal, Ramniwas Kumawat
December 2016, 8(12):1082-1088
Background: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are the most histologically heterogeneous group of tumors with greatest diversity of morphologic features among their cells and tissues. The present study was aimed at to analyze the relative frequency of individual SGTs and to correlate the various SGTs according to age, sex, anatomical site, and duration of the lesion by retrieving them from the registry of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Government Dental College and Hospital Nagpur, from 1977 to July 2008 (31 years). Materials and Methods: 82 cases of SGTs were retrieved from the registry of Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Nagpur. Results: The overall annual frequency of all SGTs was found to be 2.64 cases per year. Minor salivary glands (74.4%) were found to be more commonly involved as compared to major salivary gland (25.6%). Conclusion: Benign tumors were found in a relatively younger age group than the malignant tumors. In case of benign and malignant tumors, there was a slightly male predilection. Submandibular gland was commonly involved followed by parotid gland in major SGTs. Palate was the most common site in case of minor SGTs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,461 107 -
Implant Rehabilitation in Edentulous Jaw using MK1 System: A Case Report
Rafael S Diniz, Adriano L Sousa, Eduardo B Moffa, Leticia M Gonçalves, Ceci Nunes Carvalho, Oscar F Muñoz Chávez
December 2016, 8(12):1119-1122
A full-arch rehabilitation with implants is often hampered by the presence of excessive bone resorption, whether by early tooth loss or due to the cleaning deficiency of supporting tissues and prosthetic infrastructure in areas that have already been rehabilitated with dental implants. In extensive cases, a new surgical-prosthetic approach is required that aims to recover some lost aspects, such as function and conditions, for a good location and esthetic cleaning. Thus, rehabilitation using the system MK1 fittings is well indicated. Such fittings provide the convenience of a fixed prosthesis without full palatal coverage. They are easy to remove for the patient and facilitate proper cleaning, especially in patients susceptible to peri-implant disease development. The aim of this study was to present the case of a patient who had been rehabilitated with the full prosthesis-type protocol established by the MK1 fittings system. Multidisciplinary treatment was performed to restore health to the peri-implant tissues by taking a new surgical approach and to achieve prosthetic conditions that offer better sanitation of the area as rehabilitated by the patient. Surgical planning successfully achieved the total removal of the condemned implants and treated the support structures. It was carried out graft in previous jaw and installation of new lower implants and prostheses protocol type using the MK1 locking system.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,470 95 -
Anatomic Variations, Technique, and Clinical Applications of Anterolateral Thigh Flap for the Reconstruction of Head and Neck Defects
Raghavendra S Kurdekar, Jeevan Prakash, K Gopalkrishnan, Jemee Patel, Ramiz Vohra, Harsimran Singh
December 2016, 8(12):1069-1075
Background: Anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) even though has been around since 1984 when it was first described by Song et al. did not enjoy the wide acceptance as its other contemporary free flaps received in the reconstructive surgeries. The main reason being the anatomic variations in its vascular pedicle and bulky nature. This study aims to evaluate the anatomic variations, technical details and to elucidate the plethora of clinical applications of free ALTF in the reconstruction of head and neck malignancy defects. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients who underwent reconstruction of post malignancy defects in the head and neck region in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SDM College of Dental Sciences, Dharwad, India, were included in this study. Their records were analyzed to evaluate the technical details, vascular pedicle, clinical applications, and the associated complications. The patients were followed up for not <1-year postoperatively. Results: All the ALTF in our study had skin perforators with the majority being musculocutaneous. There were no flap failures and the flaps were used to reconstruct different composite defects successfully with least complication rates. Conclusion: ALTF meets most of the requirements of reconstructive surgeons as it can provide a large skin paddle which is fed by a long and wide caliber pedicle. The flap finds its appeal in minimal donor site morbidity and can be harvested by a two team approach. The disadvantages of anatomic variations can be negated by Doppler mapping and retrograde perforator dissection.
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  1,453 94 -
Effectiveness of Calcium Hydroxide in the Treatment of Incomplete Rhizogenesis: Case Report
Suellen Nogueira Linares Lima, Ana Carolina Soares Diniz, Érica Martins Valois, Alex Sandro Mendonça Leal, Darlon Martins Lima, Eduardo Buozi Moffa, Matheus Coelho Bandéca, Ceci Nunes Carvalho
December 2016, 8(12):1128-1131
The use of calcium hydroxide has widely spread in recent decades due to its easy availability and use, its low cost, and the fact that it is often used in cases of apexification, showing great success in inducing an apical hard tissue barrier in the immature open apex. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated by clinical studies and long-term success rates ranging between 74% and 100%. The apexification technique aims to obtain an apical barrier that prevents the passage of toxins and bacteria into the periapical tissue from the root canal and to create a conducive environment for the production of a mineralized tissue barrier or root formation at the complete formation of the immature root. Thus, the aim of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide as an apical plug with incomplete root formation, preventing the leakage of the filling material.
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  1,436 107 -
Biocompatibility and Cytotoxicity of Two Different Polymerized Denture Base Resins Cultured on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Ayman Al-Dharrab, Lana A Shinawi
December 2016, 8(12):1114-1118
Background: Traditionally for decades most oral maxillofacial prosthesis were fabricated using heat cured acrylic resin with or without Co-Cr metal base, however, recently polyamide materials that are processed thermally not chemically have been widely promoted for use as the perfect alternative to conventional hard acrylic dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the reaction of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) toward the biocompatibility of two different polymerized denture base resins. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 disc-shaped specimens (25 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness) were prepared according to the manufacturer's instruction as follows: Group (I) 10 disc-shaped heat cure acrylic resin samples polymerized conventionally in compression flasks, and Group (II) 10 disc-shaped thermoplastic acrylic resin samples polymerized using the injection molding technique. The cells used for this study were human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Cytocompatibility was evaluated by WST-1 assay and live/dead fluorescent staining. The cells were observed under fluorescent microscope and photographed at 10Χ magnifications. Results: An increase of the survival cell rate was observed in samples of both groups with no statistically significant difference. Although the live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay showed a green fluorescence cell in Group I and II with fewer scattered red fluorescence cell in Group II, the difference was not significant in both groups indicating that the materials of both groups were compatible with hMSCs. Conclusions: The current in vitro study concluded that the polymerization methods used in each group had no detrimental or negative effect on the biocompatibility of denture base resins. Our finding highlighted on the use of fluorescent live/dead viable/ cytotoxicity assay to study the biocompatibility and the viability behavior of the two-denture base resins. These findings are also support by WST-1 assay.
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  1,415 98 -
Migrasomes: Novel Organelles of Cell Migration
Barnali Majumdar, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
December 2016, 8(12):0-0
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  1,206 120 -