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   2016| November  | Volume 8 | Issue 11  
    Online since December 2, 2016

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Comparative Evaluation of Anxiety Level during the Conventional Dental Procedures with and without Audiovisual Distraction Eyeglasses in Pediatric Dental Patients
Srishty Chaturvedi, Hrishikesh Walimbe, Priyanka Karekar, Harsha Nalawade, Meenakshi Nankar, Krishnapriya Nene
November 2016, 8(11):1016-1022
Background: Dental anxiety denotes a state of apprehension something dreadful is going to happen in relation to dental and it is coupled with a sense of losing control. High levels of anxiety prevent a patient from cooperating fully with their dentist and limit the effectiveness of the dental treatment. In recent years, research in the dental operatory has proven the of psychological techniques in preparing children for and managing children during dental treatment. Distraction has been examined in a variety of medical and dental settings as a relatively easy, inexpensive, and simple approach to reducing distress and disruptive behavior in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the audiovisual distraction (AVD) eyeglasses in reduction of anxiety during conventional dental in pediatric dental patients. Materials and Methods: Study comprised 40 healthy children 6 and 10 years old visiting Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College Hospital, Pimpri, Pune, for the dental treatment with Frankl's behavior rating scale score 3 and 4. They were divided into two groups; each group having 20 patients each. Group I having 20 subjects wearing AVD eyeglasses and Group II having 20 subjects without wearing AVD eyeglasses. Three procedures including oral prophylaxis, restorative treatment, and pulpectomy procedures were done on each subject during three subsequent visits or (P < 0.05), restoration (P < 0.05), and pulpectomy/root canal treatment (RCT) (P < 0.005) as compared to Group B which is children without wearing AV eyeglasses. Anxiety reduction was seen via VAS in Group A in children wearing AV eyeglasses being statistically significant in oral prophylaxis (P < 0.05), restoration (P < 0.001), and pulpectomy/RCT (P < 0.005) as compared to Group B which is children without wearing AV eyeglasses. Anxiety reduction was seen via pulse oximeter in Group A in children wearing AV eyeglasses being statistically significant in restoration (P < 0.01) and not statistically significant in oral prophylaxis (P > 0.05) and pulpectomy/RCT (P > 0.05) as compared to Group B which is children without wearing AV eyeglasses. Conclusion: Results suggest that the use of an AVD system may be a beneficial option for patients with mild to moderate fear and anxiety associated with dental treatment in children.
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  2,542 281 -
Tumor Associated Tissue Eosinophilia As a Potential Predictor in The Invasion Patterns of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Barnali Majumdar, Sukumaran Anil, Sachin C Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Roopa S Rao, Shankargouda Patil
November 2016, 8(11):1026-1030
Background: Eosinophils are a rare type of granular leukocyte comprising only 1-4% of the total white blood count. Their presence within a wide variety of human cancers raises queries about their role. The pattern of invasion (POI) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been recognized as an adverse prognostic feature. Different theories have been proposed linking tumor-associated tissue eosinophilia (TATE) and its role in tumor progression. Hence, this study aims to assess the role of TATE in the invasion pattern of OSCC. Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study of a retrospectively collected 70 cases of OSCC, drafted from the institutional archive (2011-2014). The archival paraffin-embedded tissues were retrieved and subjected to sectioning and staining with hematoxylin and eosin and carbol chromotrope (Lendrum, 1944). The TATE was graded based on modified classical counting method (Alkhabuli and High, 2006), and the POI was evaluated based on Bryne's invasive tumor front grading system (1989). Chi-square test (P < 0.05) was employed to assess the relationship between the selected parameters. Results: Statistically significant association was found between TATE count at the invasive front and POI (P < 0.001), histological grading (P < 0.002), and the TATE count at the noninvasive front (intra- and stroma subadjacent to surface epithelium) (P < 0.010). patient demographics and nodal metastases correlation with TATE count resulted in insignificant statistical association. Conclusion: Thus, the positive correlation between TATE and POI suggests that the eosinophils might play a role in tumor- cytotoxicity and affect tumor growth.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,654 127 -
Assessment of Calcium, Magnesium, and Fluoride in Bottled and Natural Drinking Water from Jazan Province of Saudi Arabia and a Brief Review on Their Role in Tooth
Nandimandalam Venkata Vani, Ali Mohamed Idris, Ali Hussain Abuhaya, Mohammed Jafer, Dhafi Aish Almutari
November 2016, 8(11):1012-1015
Background: The minerals in the drinking water play a critical role in tooth remineralization apart from their systemic effects. This study estimated the quantity of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and fluoride (F) of commercially available bottled waters and natural drinking water in Jazan and compared them with their labeled values. The role of these minerals on tooth remineralization is briefly reviewed. Materials and Methods: The concentration of Ca, Mg, and F was determined for 12 local brands and 6 imported brands of bottled water along with 8 sources of natural drinking water. Their concentrations were determined on the basis of analytical ion chromatography using a Dionex ICS 5000 ion chromatography system at the Food and Drug Authority laboratory, Saudi Arabia. Result: The mean Ca concentration in local brands of bottled water (11.4 ± 9.8) is significantly less compared to imported brands (51.7 ± 18.7) and natural water (47.4 ± 58.5) and also below the optimum level (40-80 mg/dl). Similarly, the level of Mg is also lower in local brands (4.6 ± 5.6), but their differences with regard to imported brands (15.1 ± 14.6) and natural source (16.7 ± 27.1) are not statistically significant. The F content in local brand (0.9 ± 0.1) is in the optimum range (0.5-1.0 mg/dl) higher than imported brands (0.4 ± 0.6) and natural sources (0.3 ± 0.4). There is no significant difference between the labeled and estimated Ca, Mg, and F levels among the local and imported brands. Conclusion: The local bottled water has suboptimal Ca and Mg with optimal F content. Although the imported bottled water and natural water have sufficient Ca and Mg, their F concentration is very minimal. Drinking water with an optimum level of Ca, Mg, and provides a favorable environment to enhance the regeneration processes of the mineralized tissue in tooth carious process. Knowledge of the mineral content of the drinking water and their health significance is essential to both public and health-care professionals.
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  1,606 149 -
In Vitro Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Vinegar against Oral Microorganisms: Part I
Fahiem Mohammed Mohammed El-Shamy, Gurpreet Singh, Husham Elraih, Iti Gupta, Amr Sharawy
November 2016, 8(11):999-1002
Background: To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of vinegar against oral microorganisms in vitro. Materials and Methods: Vinegar was tested for their antimicrobial activity against five oral microorganisms; Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Candida albicans by standard agar-disk diffusion assay. Oradex mouth rinses containing 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate was served as positive control. The testing materials under study were placed in the wells, prepared in the agar. The dishes were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones were recorded and compared for every material and bacterial strain. Results: Both vinegar and chlorhexidine were effective in inhibiting the growth of all tested microorganisms. Vinegar was statistically significant effective against S. mutans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicans as compared to oradex mouthrinse (P < 0.01). Regarding Lactobacillus, chlorhexidine was statistically highly significant than vinegar (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This scientific study reported the antibacterial activity of vinegar against four out of five microorganisms was found to be superior to the chlorhexidine, which is actually considered as one of the most effective antimicrobial agents.
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  1,625 121 -
Estimation of Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Serum Immunoglobulin A in Smokers and Nonsmokers: A Comparative Study
Anveeta Agarwal, Roopa S Rao, SV Sowmya, Dominic Augustine, Shankargouda Patil
November 2016, 8(11):1008-1011
Background: Cigarette smoke has been shown to cause immune modulatory effects making the individual susceptible to various diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) forms the first line of defense against pathogens at the mucosal surfaces and smoking might interfere with its production and function. By understanding how cigarette smoking causes reduced serum and salivary Ig levels, increasing their levels may be therapeutic in the prevention of oral diseases. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 60 smokers and the control of 60 nonsmokers of age group 18-45 years. Case histories were elicited, informed consent was taken, and serum and saliva samples were collected. Salivary and serum IgA were detected using the turbidimetric IgA immunoassay. The presence of IgA in the test specimen resulted in the formation of an insoluble complex producing a turbidity, which was measured at a wavelength of 340 nm. IgA concentration for all serum and saliva samples was calculated as per the manufacturer's guidelines. Data obtained was statistically analyzed. Results: Serum and salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in nonsmokers as compared to smokers. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the serum and salivary IgA levels in smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusion: There is strong evidence that smoking precipitates orogastrointestinal diseases due to its profound effects on immune system. Estimation of the IgA levels in smokers could prove to be of therapeutic use for the control and prevention of oral diseases.
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  1,587 142 -
Success of Delayed Replantation of an Avulsed Tooth: A Case Report
Vinod Agrawal, Aanchal Agrawal, G Srikumar, Vaibhav Sharma, Manoj Kumar Hans
November 2016, 8(11):1039-1042
An avulsed tooth or avulsion is an emergency traumatic experience. Tooth avulsion results in the damage of attachment apparatus and pulpal necrosis. The management of avulsed tooth often presents a challenge to the clinician. Clinically, successful replantation of an avulsed teeth results in prolonged retention of teeth which improves esthetic appearance, mastication of food and maintaining the integrity of the arch. This case report presents a successful management of avulsed maxillary permanent left central incisor in a 16-year-old female patient with an extra oral time of 30 h. After extraoral root canal treatment, avulsed tooth was replanted back into the socket. 1-year follow-up examination revealed successful replantation of the avulsed tooth, with no evidence of root resorption or ankylosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,603 123 -
Nutritional Assessment in Temporomandibular Disease: Creating an Awareness on Systemic Impact of Temporomandibular Disorder in Saudi Population
Suhael Ahmed, Nafeesa Tabassum, Omar Al Dayel, Fahad Adnan Safar, Abdullah Ali Al Damkh, Abdullah Tariq Al Qahtani
November 2016, 8(11):1023-1025
Background: The aim of this study is to recognize the nutritional deficiencies in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients by assessing the nutritional values and create an awareness and manage the same to improve the treatment outcome of TMD patients in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP), Riyadh, KSA. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Diagnostics and Maxillofacial Surgery at RCsDP, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 67 TMD patients with an average age of 45 years were included in the study. Routine clinical examination was done followed by standard blood assay for micronutrients. Results : Among 67 patients, 37 patients showed nutritional deficiencies (of various micronutrients), constituting 55.22% of nutritional deficiency in TMD patients in RCsDP, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: Malnutrition acts as a cofactor in TMD patients. It is therefore essential for the clinician to assess the dietary status of patients with TMD and guide them accordingly. Early recognition and management would hasten healing and improve treatment outcome in these patients.
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  1,604 119 -
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Anoikis: A Brief Review on Recent Advances
Anjali Ganjre, Gargi S Sarode, Sachin C Sarode, Shankargouda Patil
November 2016, 8(11):1043-1048
Anoikis resistance is a crucial process responsible for metastasis of cancer cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Array of molecules is responsible for modulation of anoikis which directly or indirectly results in anoikis resistance. They alter the specific molecules like hepatocyte growth factor, caveolin, tetramolybdenum which play an important role in anoikis. Moreover, they modify different pathways such as Akt, mitogen- activated protein kinase, Wnt/catenin to overcome metastasis. It will be beneficial to review anoikis associated recent advancements in the English medical literature so that it will help in implicating novel therapeutic approaches to overcome metastasis and thus improving the prognosis of the OSCC patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  1,554 95 -
Occurrence of Facial Fracture and Association with Socioeconomic Indicators in a Hospital Emergency Care Center in the Central Region of Brazil
Thiago Leonardo Rios, Tereza Aparecida Tereza Aparecida Semenoff, Ana Paula da Cunha Barbosa de Lima, Natalino Francisco da Silva, Matheus Coêlho Espinosa, Mariano Martínez Espinosa, Álvaro Henrique Borges, Alex Semenoff-Segundo
November 2016, 8(11):1003-1007
Background: Increase in automobile accidents' number has promoted more severity of facial fractures. The objective was to describe the occurrence of fracture of facial bones and correlate it with socioeconomic indicators in the population of a hospital emergency care center. Materials and Methods: Patient data were collected during the period from March 2014 to September 2015. The selection was performed according to attendance order. The patients with a face fracture were included, diagnosed clinically with complementary image exams, and always by the same professional. The data collected included gender, race, city of residence, schooling, marital status, type of accident, fracture region, type of fracture, and quantity of fractured bones. The types of fractures were classified as mandibular movements, zygomatic complex, maxillary, frontal, and nasal facial bones. Type of fracture was categorized as the upper and lower facial bones. Chi-square tests and the prevalence ratio robust Poisson regression were used with a significance level of 5%. Results: Fractures of the mandible, zygomatic complex, and nasal bones were most common. Overall, the upper bones were fractured more frequently. The socioeconomic variables correlated with facial fracture incidence were male gender, car accident involvement, black race, elementary school education level, inadequate or lack of safety equipment use, home ownership, and lack of children. A bivariate analysis indicated increased incidences of patients more than 30 years old, living alone and with fractures of the upper facial bones. Conclusion: Males who are of black race and belong to a low social class may have increased the risk of facial fractures; the bone most involved was the mandible, followed by the zygomatic and nasal bones.
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  1,520 87 -
Immediate Load Fixed Full-Arch Prosthesis with Three Dental Implants in Complete Edentulous Lower Jaw on Human immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patient: 36 Months Follow-up a Case Report and Literature Review
João Ricardo Almeida Grossi, Kevelin Poliana Palma Rigo Thiesen, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Allan Fernando Giovanini, João César Zielak
November 2016, 8(11):1031-1038
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, identified in 1982, oral manifestations include post- surgical complications and special care to a safe surgical intervention should be followed, making it the most favorable prognosis. Methods: This review is to evaluate the cases published in world scientific literature involving HIV+ patients undergoing therapy with dental implants and their reactions, compared to patients without this disease. Moreover, reports the planning, implementation and follow-up of 36 months of a case with immediate load fixed full arch prosthesis in complete edentulous lower jaw with three implants on HIV+ patient. Results: A 56 years old, toothless in both jaws. All serologic and clinic examinations were favorable, as well as the X-ray examinations, without pathological changes or bone problems. Treatment plans was a complete denture maxillary and immediate load with implants mandibulary. Three implants 3.75 diameter ×15 mm length, one in a median region, and two tilted to distal, bilaterally to reduce the cant-lever were performed, abutments installed and provided the final prosthesis after molding to delivery on the next day. Conclusion: The patient reports complete comfort with prosthesis, the knowledge of hygiene techniques available to the longevity of the case, and the improvement in their overall health with implants, because feeds more and better, with a suitable grinding food providing a better health for treatment against HIV. The dental implants show great option for the rehabilitation of these patients demonstrated in this review, and reporting and monitoring of 36 months immediate loading.
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  1,483 86 -