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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Prophylactic antibiotics after extraction: Needed or not needed?
M Deepa, Deepthi Mony, Tusha Ratra
November-December 2017, 9(6):265-268
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_219_17  
Aim: Our study aimed to evaluate the need to prescribe antibiotics before every extraction even in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized clinical trial was done on 483 patients who were indicated for undergoing extraction under local anesthesia. The patients were evaluated for signs of infection that included pain, edema, fever, pus discharge, erythema, and decreased interincisal opening. They were evaluated on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative day for the same. The patient was considered to have an active infection if they showed pain and any other two signs of infections. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results: Out of the 483 patients evaluated two patients had pain and showed slight edema and erythema. These patients were considered as having an active infection and were prescribed therapeutic antibiotics. Conclusion: In our study, 0.4% showed signs of active infection after undergoing extraction without prophylactic antibiotics. Further studies have to be undertaken to create definitive guidelines for prescribing antibiotics after extraction.
  23,532 504 -
CASE REPORTS
The key to the management of pier abutment: An alternative approach
Ansu Kuruvila, Suja Joseph, Namratha L Jayalekshmi, Sujith K Menon
May-June 2017, 9(3):136-139
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_121_17  
Pier abutment poses a challenge to prosthodontist. Rigid connectors are less than ideal treatment in case of these abutments. Nonrigid connectors have been recommended to reduce the forces as they provide a stress-breaking effect. This case report presents an alternative approach to the management of pier abutment. A 46-year-old female patient with missing teeth involving a pier abutment was rehabilitated with a fixed dental prosthesis with key-keyway connectors. An alternative method of orientation of the connector was used to benefit the patient.
  21,287 1,131 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Oral health-related quality of life and the index of orthodontic treatment need to evaluate the association of patients' self-perceived need and normative need toward orthodontic treatment
Renjith George, Renu Sarah Samson, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Preethy Mary Donald, Wang Liang Hui, Pang Khai Ling, Kalpana Saseendran
May-June 2018, 10(3):115-120
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_64_18  
Aims: To assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with malocclusion and to measure the association of OHRQoL with orthodontic treatment need. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 290 participants aged 13 to 30 years, attending orthodontic clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College (MMMC). The participants were asked to complete the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), after which clinical examinations were conducted to assess normative orthodontic treatment needs using the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Results: A total of 290 adolescent and young adults participated in this study. The mean overall score for OHIP-14 was 11.8(±8.0). There was no significant association of oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) between different age groups, gender, ethnicities and education levels. There was no significant association between age, gender, ethnicity, education level and orthodontic treatment need. Also, there was no significant association of OHIP-14 score between no treatment need and little treatment need. However, OHIP-14 score was significantly higher in borderline treatment need compared to no treatment need (6.06, 95% CI 1.07, 11.04), little treatment need (3.95, 95% CI 1.75, 6.16) while high treatment need had significantly higher OHIP-14 score than borderline treatment need (7.13, 95% CI 3.46, 10.80). Conclusion: Malocclusion has a significant negative impact on OHRQoL. There is a significant association in mean overall OHIP score when comparing high orthodontic treatment needs and with no treatment needs. This study did not find any significant association in orthodontic treatment needs in relation to age groups, gender, ethnicities and education level.
  17,027 214 1
REVIEW ARTICLE
Triple antibiotic paste––Challenging intracanal medicament: A systematic review
Saleem D Makandar, Tahir Y Noorani
May-June 2020, 12(3):189-196
DOI:10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_213_19  
Aim: To evaluate and compare the performance of triple antibiotic paste (TAP) as intracanal medicaments during the root canal treatment. Materials and Methods: Search strategy included the in vivo studies, in vitro studies, and clinical trials from the databases of PubMed Central, Cochrane, EBSCO, and MEDLINE from January 1981 to August 2019. A total of 223 articles were searched, of which 39 articles were relevant to our study. The searched articles were clinical trials, case reports, and original studies that met with inclusion criteria. Of which, 13 articles were used for quantitative synthesis. A systematic review was performed for TAPs, antibacterial efficiency, effect on mechanical properties, discoloration effect, and cytotoxicity on stem cells. Results: In the included studies, the systematic review articles, the evidence of antibacterial efficiency of TAP is significantly more efficient compared to other medicaments techniques. The mechanical properties has been evaluated, there is a mild reduction in the mechanical properties of the dentin. TAP plays a significant role in reducing the chronic periapical infections. It shows minimal discoloration effect and minimal cytotoxicity to dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) as compared to calcium hydroxide and Ledermix. Conclusion: This systematic review of available data and evidences reveals that TAP is significantly more efficient than the other intracanal medicaments because of its minimal discoloration effect on teeth and less toxic nature to the DPSCs.
  14,441 711 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Reliability and validity of the thai version of rapid estimate of adult literacy in dentistry
Supasin Deeraksa, Rajda Chaichit, Benja Muktabhant, Suwit Udompanich
May-June 2019, 11(3):132-136
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_51_19  
Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Thai version of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (ThREALD-30). Materials and Methods: The Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry-30 items (REALD-30) was translated to Thai language and back-translation process to English version of REALD-30 by experts of dentistry and linguistics. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1110 patients from the five provinces in Northeast of Thailand. All variables were performed by descriptive statistics. The quality of the development tool of ThREALD-30 was tested internal consistency, reliability, and validity from construct validity and predictive validity correlated with Thai Oral Health Impact Profile 14 items (Thai OHIP-14) and Oral health status, respectively. The statistics were analyzed using STATA version 10. Results: A total of 1110 adult patients with a mean age was 51.11 + 6.63 years old. The reliability of ThREALD-30 was excellent (α = 0.950; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.970, 95% confidence interval: 0.939–1.000). The construct validity was evaluated to indicate the subscales of ThREALD-30 being trustable by showing the correlation coefficient with their own dimension between 0.345 and 0.773, and predictive validity from Spearman's with Thai OHIP-14 (rrho= −0.688, P < 0.001) and oral health status; decayed, missing, and filled teeth (rrho = −0.283, P < 0.001); Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (rrho = −0.432, P < 0.001); and clinical attachment loss (rrho= −0.470, P < 0.001), supporting the construct and criterion validity. Conclusion: ThREALD-30 is an oral health literacy tool that worked well in the Thai population. It offers a valid and reliable instrument for measuring oral health outcome of the individual in community settings.
  12,958 585 3
REVIEW ARTICLE
Review of microleakage evaluation tools
AlHanouf Abdullah AlHabdan
July-August 2017, 9(4):141-145
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_160_17  
The advancement of restorative materials and techniques continues to enhance the clinical success of numerous restorative procedures. Despite these new innovations, microleakage persists as one of the main causes of restoration failure. Microleakage tests provide useful information on the performance of restorative materials, and different techniques for assessing microleakage have been developed and used. These tests include the use of dyes, radioactive isotopes, air pressure, bacteria, neutron activation analysis, and artificial caries. However, little has been done to determine the cause, mechanism, and nature of microleakage. Therefore, this review outlines and discusses the currently available microleakage assessment tools.
  11,848 1,505 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
GERT index: A modified tooth mobility and treatment index
Lakshmi Puzhankara
January-February 2018, 10(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_165_17  
Aim: Tooth mobility has always been a monumental factor in determining the prognosis of a tooth. There are no indices that link the etiology, grade of mobility, and radiographic appearance with treatment options for mobile teeth. This particular article aims to overcome the oversight and bring in a scoring system that incorporates all the above mentioned components. Materials and Methods: Previously existing index for tooth mobility has been modified (G Score) to make it more defined numerically and clinically, and it has been combined with indices for etiology (E Score) of tooth mobility and radiographic appearance (R Score) of mobile teeth. The Grading Etiology Radiographic appearance (GER) scores have then been allied with a combination of treatment methods (T Score) to get the Grading Etiology Radiographic appearance Treatment (GERT) index. Results: The index that results from this combination is one that encompasses the factors that determine the prognosis and treatment aspects of a mobile tooth. The index given in this article takes into consideration the components that contribute to the diagnosis of the etiology of tooth mobility such the clinical presentation and the radiographic appearance. The grade of mobility has been modified to allow for precise numerical assessment of mobility. Thus, the treatment plan proposed considers the basic cause for the mobility and the comprehensive treatment modality for the same. Conclusion: Although the index appears elaborate, once mastered, it would pave the way for a thorough treatment planning for mobile teeth and efficient execution of the treatment plan.
  11,970 779 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Shrinkage in composites: An enigma
Dhakshinamoorthy Malarvizhi, Arumugam Karthick, NewBegin Selvakumar Gold Pearlin Mary, Alagarsamy Venkatesh
September-October 2019, 11(5):244-248
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_36_19  
In recent years, increased demand for perfectly aesthetic restoration coupled with improved performance of composite resin made clinicians to select composite resins over amalgam restoration. Patients prefer composite restoration not only for restoring anteriors but also to replace their unaesthetic amalgam restoration of their posteriors. The greatest limitation of composite resin as posterior restoration is its polymerization shrinkage leading to marginal leakage, tooth or restoration fracture, postoperative sensitivity, ultimately leading to the reduction of the long-term success of the restoration. There are several factors associated with the polymerization process that have its impact on the integrity of the tooth restoration complex. So the astute clinician should have thorough knowledge regarding the mechanism involved in polymerization shrinkage and the techniques of overcoming it. The objective of this article was to make the clinician understand the factors and the problems related to the polymerization shrinkage with the methods to overcome the same for the clinical longevity of the restoration.
  11,573 746 2
CASE REPORTS
Early orthodontic interception of anterior crossbite in mixed dentition
MM Sunil, MA Zareena, MS Ratheesh, G Anjana
March-April 2017, 9(2):88-90
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_9_17  
Single tooth anterior crossbite is commonly seen in the early mixed dentition period. Once identified, the treatment should ideally involve any method which is simple, noninvasive, involves little chair side time, requires minimal patient cooperation, and gives rapid correction of the crossbite without affecting the surrounding structures. In young children, compliance with a removable appliance can often be an issue. Here, we present a fixed appliance for the correction of single tooth anterior crossbite in mixed dentition using a simple appliance.
  10,742 1,201 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Effects of Toothpaste Containing Granular Calcium Carbonate on Oral Health
Mami Endoh, Atsushi Takayanagi, Masatsugu Fujiseki, Yukio Eda, Morihide Itano, Yoshitaka Yano
September-October 2019, 11(5):249-255
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_37_18  
Aims and Objectives: To investigate the oral health effects of using toothpaste containing granular calcium carbonate (CaG). Materials and Methods: The subjects were adult volunteers. Two kinds of toothpaste, Paste P and Q were used. Paste P contained 13% CaG, which had a mean diameter of 250 µm and a breaking strength of 20 gf. Paste Q had the same formulation without CaG. Study 1 was to evaluate the ability to remove dental plaque by toothpaste with a single use, and it was a crossover study. The subjects were 50 adults. Plaque levels were assessed using the Quigley–Hein Index (QHI). Study 2 was to investigate the effects of CaG in toothpaste on gingival health. The subjects were 60 adults. The subjects used Paste P for 3 days before the baseline assessment. On the baseline assessment, the subjects whose gingival sulci were found to contain CaG were asked to continue using the Paste P for 6 months. The pocket depth, the gingival index (GI), the QHI, and the presence of CaG in the gingival sulci at 1, 3, and 6 months from the baseline were examined. Results: In study 1, the CaG-containing toothpaste produced a significantly lower mean QHI than the control. In study 2, the QHI and GI of the gingival sulci in which CaG was detected were significantly lower than those of the gingival sulci in which CaG was not detected. Conclusion: Toothpaste containing CaG removed greater amounts of plaque and did not have adverse effects on periodontal tissue.
  10,585 203 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Carbon monoxide breath analyzers and its role in tobacco cessation: A narrative review of literature
Ramprasad Vasthare, Santhosh Kumar, Lim Yan Ran Arron
March-April 2018, 10(2):71-76
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_273_17  
This literature review was done to estimate the uses and effectiveness of carbon monoxide (CO) breath analyzers in identifying smokers and evaluating the role it can play in tobacco cessation programs. A web-based research on PubMed and Scopus from date of inception till 2016 was done for collecting data for the review. Our inquiry was limited to relevant articles with specific keywords. During the web search title and abstracts, 118 articles were screened for content and quality and 66 articles were selected to get an update on the desired information. As on date, there is enough evidence to prove the reasonably high sensitivity and specificity of CO analyzers in distinguishing smokers and nonsmokers. It also correlates well with smoking status. Its primary application is in validating smoking abstinence and as a motivational tool in smoking cessation programs. Due to its advantages over other biochemical assays, it is used in screening large population, in developing countries and in research. It can also detect pregnant women who are smokers and victims of passive tobacco exposure. However, it does possess limitations which have to be taken into account when using it. It can be concluded that CO analyzers are proven to have great potential and can be used as an adjunct in achieving the goal of combating tobacco addiction. It is cheap, noninvasive, gives immediate results, easy to use, and it can be self-administered by individuals. It should henceforth be considered as an invaluable tool for tobacco cessation programs.
  10,122 488 8
CASE REPORTS
Management of discolored endodontically treated tooth using sodium perborate
Thamer Almohareb
May-June 2017, 9(3):133-135
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_131_17  
The aim of this report is to depict the successful management of a discolored central incisor subsequent to endodontic treatment and its follow-up for 1 year. Improper bleaching techniques can lead to cervical resorption and eventual loss of teeth. Management of the discolored endodontically treated tooth can be performed using sodium perborate (SP). A 22-year-old female who had undergone endodontic treatment of the central incisor reported with discolored maxillary central incisor tooth. The case was managed with “walking bleach technique” using SP and water. The case was followed up for 1 year and there was no relapse. Proper selection of bleaching agent and technique had resulted in the conservative and successful management of the case. Appropriate bleaching technique should be selected to manage discolored teeth.
  8,521 686 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
The association between functional oral health literacy and periodontal disease among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the northeast region of Thailand
Rajda Chaichit, Supasin Deeraksa
September-October 2020, 12(5):432-438
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_338_19  
Aim: To analyze the association between functional oral health literacy (FOHL) and oral health behaviors with periodontal disease among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional analysis study was conducted among 1110 adults with T2DM who were selected by multistage random sampling from 10 hospitals of five provinces in the northeast region of Thailand. A structured questionnaire was developed, and face to face interview and also clinical oral examination and blood glucose investigation were carried out. Data distribution was performed by descriptive statistic and chi-square test. The multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between variables after adjustment for confounders. Results: In this study, a total of 1110 adults with T2DM divided into two groups according to the severity of periodontal disease showed 51.89% of moderate–severe periodontal disease. The study examined the association of periodontal disease with the independent variables after adjusted odd ratios, it was found to be statistically significant with the FOHL level (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30–2.40), toothbrushing frequency (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.40), smoking (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.45–3.40), and betel nut crewing (AOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.28–3.45). Moreover, the demographic characteristics of patients with T2DM associated with the severity of periodontal disease in variables of gender, age, education level, duration with diabetes, and health insurance were also statistically significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion: The FOHL level and oral behaviors among adults with T2DM were statistically significant with periodontal disease. However, the patients of T2DM with low FOHL and poor oral health behaviors need extra support from dental health personnel to reduce the risk of oral disease.
  8,264 300 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases: A review
Fatemah AlAhmari, Lujain Shaikh, Deema AlDhubaiban
March-April 2020, 12(2):102-108
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_204_18  
Aim: Periodontal diseases remain a challenging clinical condition and hence existing literature showed no consensus on the best treatment option for disease control. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of exciting clinical evidence on the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of periodontal diseases. Materials and Method: A literature review was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, Wiley, ScienceDirect, and Scopus using the terms PDT, periodontal disease, laser, scaling and root planning, chronic periodontitis, and aggressive periodontitis. Results: Of a total of 149 articles appeared from various sources, 147 articles were screened and 36 were related to the research objective. Adjunctive therapy with PDT may promote additional clinical and microbiological outcomes. Conclusion: Little information is available with regard to PDT photosensitizers, wavelength, number of sessions, and duration. Therefore, large randomized control trials with longer follow-up are needed to assess the potential of PDT in the treatment of periodontal disease.
  7,926 537 4
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Knowledge and practice of rotary instrumentation in primary teeth among indian dentists: A questionnaire survey
Lavanya Govindaraju, Ganesh Jeevanandan, EMG Subramanian
March-April 2017, 9(2):45-48
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_4_17  
Introduction: Use of rotary instrumentation for pulpectomy is a recent emerging concept in the field of pedodontics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of NiTi rotary instruments' usage in primary teeth by the Indian dentists. Materials and Methods: A self-administrated questionnaire was prepared and pretested and was given to the private practitioners. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were obtained. The data were entered and analyzed for frequency and percentages using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 17. Results: In the present study, about 50% of the practitioners used rotary instrumentation of root canals in primary teeth, of which majority were postgraduates. ProTaper was the commonly used rotary system in primary teeth. The practitioners felt both taper and length of the existing rotary file to be the limitation for its use in primary teeth. Conclusion: From the present study, it is concluded that there is a need for comprehensive education programs to be conducted to increase the awareness and use of rotary files for pulpectomy in primary teeth. In addition, there is a need for an exclusive pediatric rotary system for convenience in using it in children.
  7,524 754 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Various recent reinforcement phase incorporations and modifications in glass ionomer powder compositions: A comprehensive review
Arbaz Sajjad, Wan Zaripah Wan Bakar, Dasmawati Mohamad, TP Kannan
July-August 2018, 10(4):161-167
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_160_18  
Glass ionomer cements (GIC) were first introduced to dentistry in the late 1960s and since have proven to be useful in various areas of dental science, particularly restorative dentistry. As an aqueous polyelectrolyte system, GICs are known for their relative ease of use, chemical bond to the tooth, fluoride release and recharge, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and acceptable esthetic quality. However, clinical usage of GICs is still limited due to their relatively inferior mechanical properties and sensitivity to initial desiccation and moisture. Years of extensive research on enhancing the chemistry of the basic glasses have yielded improved formulations with enhanced mechanical properties and reduced moisture sensitivity. A comprehensive review of the available literature has revealed that not all modifications in glass powder have resulted in the desirable strengthening of GICs. There is a shift of focus toward studies on nanoscale particles and bioactive glass. Recent research has proven that incorporation of nanoceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA), fluorapatite, silica, and zirconia (ZrO2) have resulted in improved mechanical properties of GICs due to their ability to release fluoride, high surface area, and better particle size distribution. More work should thus, be undertaken to optimize techniques for enhancing the physicomechanical properties of GICs by incorporation of nanophases of ZrO2, HA, and metallic nanofillers.
  7,190 889 3
Povidone-iodine in dental and oral health: A narrative review
Rahmi Amtha, Jeeve Kanagalingam
September-October 2020, 12(5):407-412
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_89_20  
Aim: Proper oral care is an important contributor to overall health, and various antiseptic options are available for the prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Povidone-iodine (PVP-I) oral formulations remain popular for their broad spectrum of effect and favorable tolerability profile. Our aim was to provide a narrative review looking at the past and current studies evaluating PVP-I usage for the maintenance of oral health. Materials and Methods: Querying the PubMed and Web of Science databases using the terms “PVP-I,” “Oral Health,” and “Dental Care,” we identified and systematically reviewed articles for a literature review of PVP-I applications in the area. In addition to potent antimicrobial action against common viruses, fungi, and bacteria, the absence of reported resistance to PVP-I makes it an increasingly attractive option in today’s settings. Results: The applications for PVP-I range from routine oral care and gingivitis through to the management of oral mucositis and surgical site disinfection following dental surgeries. Evidence also suggests that PVP-I confers additional benefits that complement its antiseptic properties. These include anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous, and hemostyptic effects, which can improve clinical outcomes. Conclusion: The clinical benefits of PVP-I warrant its ongoing consideration as a reliable antiseptic for broad oral care needs.
  7,608 441 -
CASE REPORTS
Glossitis mimicking median rhomboid glossitis induced by throat lozenges and refreshment candies
Meircurius Dwi Condro Surboyo, Diah Savitri Ernawati, Adiastuti Endah Parmadiati
September-October 2019, 11(5):323-328
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_76_19  
Acute sore throat is a condition of inflammation, characterized by pain, swelling, and burning sensation, which result from inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. Throat lozenges and refreshment candy containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics are commonly used to relieve the symptoms of sore throat. Side effects of using throat lozenges and refreshment candy have not been reported. This case report presents the case of glossitis mimicking median rhomboid glossitis induced by throat lozenges and refreshment candy, which is used to relieve the symptoms of sore throat. Management includes anamnesis, clinical examination, and instructions for stopping throat lozenges and refreshment candy consumption.
  7,752 271 2
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Management of infraorbital rim and orbital floor fractures: A comparison of subciliary and infraorbital approaches
Mohammed Ahtesam Aleem, Fazil Arshad Nasyam, KR Parameshwar Reddy, Tanveer Karpe, Tejpal Singh, Achunala Bhavani Shailaja
March-April 2017, 9(2):65-70
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_26_17  
Background: Selection of approach to treat orbital fractures involves multiple factors such as visibility and esthetics. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare subciliary and infraorbital incisions for orbital floor and infraorbital rim fractures. Materials and Methods: We carried our study in twenty patients, who reported to the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery with orbital floor and infraorbital rim fractures. The patients were divided into two groups (Group A - subciliary incision and Group B - infraorbital incision), with ten patients in each group. We compared infraorbital and subciliary incisions to approach the infraorbital rim and orbital floor in orbital fractures using criteria such as exposure time, esthetics, and complications. Results: All the analysis was done using SPSS version 14.P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. We found that infraorbital incision took shortest time for exposing fractured site, caused more edema after 1 month of procedure, and lead to more visible scarring when compared to subciliary incision. Conclusion: We recommend subciliary incision to approach the infraorbital rim and orbital floor fractures.
  7,359 298 2
Effects of green tea on periodontal health: A prospective clinical study
Swati Sharma, Lipsa Bhuyan, Sujatha Ramachandra, Smriti Sharma, Kailash Chandra Dash, Kanika Singh Dhull
March-April 2017, 9(2):39-44
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_37_17  
Background: An increasing number of people all around the world are turning to the nature by using the natural herbal products in both prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. Green tea with active chemical ingredients possesses diverse pharmacological properties that include anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic, antioxidant, and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study is to assess the protective properties of green tea on periodontal health and also to know whether any side effect of green tea prevails in terms of staining of teeth. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized clinical intervention study. Three dependent variables: probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured to reflect periodontal diseases. Results: The three dependent variables, namely, PD, CAL, and BOP showed statistically significant reductions following introduction of green tea as a conjunct oral hygiene measure in study group as compared to control group. Conclusion: Green tea has shown the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticollagenase activities on periodontal health.
  6,492 421 -
Effect of chewing gums containing probiotics and xylitol on oral health in children: A randomized controlled trial
Kanwardeep Kaur, Sridhar Nekkanti, Mridula Madiyal, Prashant Choudhary
September-October 2018, 10(5):237-243
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_170_18  
Aims: Probiotics have been proven to be beneficial for general and systemic health. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have investigated the use of probiotics for the prevention or treatment of dental caries and gingival diseases. Lactobacillus reuteri is believed to possess anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotics and xylitol on the salivary Streptococcus mutans counts, plaque, and gingival scores after the intervention. Materials and Methods: In our 3-week, short-term trial, 40 healthy 7–12-year-old children consumed two commercially available chewing gums; Group 1 (BioGaia™ ProDentis) and Group 2 (Orbit®Gum, Wrigley's). Individuals consumed three chewing gums daily, immediately after major meals for 20 min each. The probiotic gum contained two strains of L. reuteri (ATCC 55730 and ATCC PTA 5282) along with artificial sweetener, sorbitol, and the xylitol gum consisted of both xylitol and sorbitol. Pre- and post-intervention whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected and cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar plates to check for colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans. Plaque and gingival scores were also recorded at pre- and post-intervention appointments. Results: Following the intervention, the salivary Streptococcus mutans counts decreased in both groups. There was a significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores at postintervention examination. Conclusion: Probiotics can be used as an alternative to xylitol in the preventive regimen for dental caries or control in case of high caries risk.
  6,300 422 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative evaluation of effect of smoking on survival of dental implant
Arpana Arora, Madhan Mohan Reddy, Swapnil Mhatre, Aashima Bajaj, PV Gopinath, Prasad Arvind
January 2017, 9(1):24-27
DOI:10.4103/0976-7428.201094  
Aims and Objectives: Osseointegrated implants are used in replacement of missing teeth. Survival rate of implant depends on many factors including oral hygiene, implant material used, bone quality, and personal oral habit such as smoking. The present retrospective research was conducted to assess the effect of smoking on survival of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The study participants were selected from all the patients who underwent for dental implant in implant center from 2005 to 2015. For each patient, various information regarding implant characteristics and smoking habits were recorded. The readings were statistically evaluated by SPSS statistical software by IBM version 21 and using Chi-square test at P ≤ 0.01. Results: In our study, the age range of patients was between 30 and 54 years. There were 2142 (57.2%) male and 1579 (42.4%) female participants, in that 72.2% were nonsmokers and 27.7% were smokers. Implant placed more in mandible (2312, 62%) than in maxillary region (1409, 37.8%). From 3721 patients, 3600 were successful and 121 failures. Success of implant was considerably more in nonsmokers than smokers. Implant failure rate was more in smokers with increased frequency and duration of cigarette smoking habit, but it was statistically not significant. In the present study, we have observed 0.049% mobility in smokers compared to 0.007% in nonsmokers. Conclusion: The present study showed that higher risk of implant failure was associated with long term and increased frequency of smoking due to bone resorption.
  6,352 327 4
REVIEW ARTICLE
Clear aligner therapy––Narrative review
Aljazi H Aljabaa
January 2020, 12(7):1-4
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_180_19  
Clear aligners are gaining more popularity, as most patients, especially adults, dislike the appearance of fixed appliances. In 1997, Align Technology© (Santa Clara, CA) released the Invisalign® system. The company used both computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) to produce its orthodontic appliances. This technology, which allows for multiple tooth movements from a single impression, introduced the clear aligner as it is now known. At the beginning, the Invisalign® system was used to treat simple tooth movement. However, as it developed, the manufacturer began using attachments and intermaxillary elastics to obtain different movements, so Invisalign® became a viable alternative to fixed appliances. Different aligner systems similar to Invisalign®, such as ClearCorrect, etc., became available on the market, and they use the same principle to obtain the desired results. This review investigated the indications and contraindications of clear aligner therapy (CAT), including its efficiency and limitations; patient comfort and acceptance; and periodontal health, root resorption, and stability. In conclusion, CAT has been improved over the last 18 years and is still being improved. The treatment results depend on the clinician’s own experience, case selection, and patient adherence. The clinician should be clear about the advantages and disadvantages of CAT, and the patient should be made aware that he/she should wear the appliance for 22–23h/day and only remove it while eating. The limitations of this study are lack of comparison between available CAT systems, the types and mechanics of movement produced by different types of attachments, and the cost.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Assessment of pain, swelling and trismus following impacted third molar surgery using injection dexamethasone submucosally: A prospective, randomized, crossover clinical study
Kamran Bokhari Syed, Falah Hassan Khuzayyim AlQahtani, Abdul Hakeem Ayed Mohammad, Ismail Mohammad Abdullah, Hussain Saad Hussain Qahtani, Mohammad Shahul Hameed
May-June 2017, 9(3):116-121
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_65_17  
Background: Corticosteroids are known to reduce inflammation, fluid transudation, and edema. Secreted from the adrenal glands, these compounds have a significant role in maintaining metabolism. One of the essential roles played by steroids is their anti-inflammatory role. Aims and Objectives: This prospective, randomized, crossover, clinical study was conducted with the following aims and objectives: (a) to assess pain, swelling and trismus in patients undergoing surgical removal of impacted third molars, (b) to compare the pain, swelling and mouth opening with injection of submucosal dexamethasone 4 mg administered preoperatively, and (c) to compare the results with similar studies conducted elsewhere. Materials and Methods: The study sample involves 20 patients (40 impacted teeth-split arch) with the following inclusion criteria: Patient's reporting for surgical removal of symptomatic impacted mandibular third molars aged between 18 and 45, impacted mandibular third molar with similar anatomical position, and similar surgical difficulty (Pell-Gregory classification was followed), no allergies to medicines prescribed in the postoperative period, patients who are nonsmokers, nonalcoholics and without any systemic diseases, and not systemically compromised or not under long-term steroid therapy. Syndromic patients, patients with periapical pathologies were excluded from the study. Results: The results of the present study suggest that there is a significant reduction of pain, swelling and improvement in mouth opening following submucosal injection of dexamethasone at the end of the 1st postoperative day and the results are statistically significant. Conclusion: (a) Corticosteroids decrease pain, edema and swelling by exerting their anti-inflammatory role, (b) there is statistically significant difference in reduction of pain, swelling and improvement of mouth opening at the end of 1st postoperative day, (c) submucosal injection of dexamethasone is less traumatic, less painful and is effective in limiting postoperative discomfort to the patient, and (d) a similar prospective study is suggested comparing the efficacy of intravenous dexamethasone versus submucosal administration of dexamethasone.
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Knowledge, attitude, perception toward radiation hazards and protection among dental undergraduate students: A study
Rahul Srivastava, Bhuvan Jyoti, Prakash Jha, Ashutosh Shukla
March-April 2017, 9(2):81-87
DOI:10.4103/jioh.jioh_26_16  
Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and perception (KAP) of dental students toward ionizing radiation, biological hazards, and appropriate radiographic protection methods. To assess the need for improving the knowledge/awareness toward radiation hazards and protection methods among the dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted. A total of 174 dental students who had completed their 30 days posting in Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology were inducted for the study. All the students were subjected to structured 17 response questionnaire with multiple choices. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using the SPSS software package version 17. Pearson Chi-square test was done to evaluate the statistical significance. Results: The present study revealed 54.22% correct response from 3rd year followed by 57.78% from final years and 61.64% from interns. The overall correct response was 57.57%. Conclusion: The results from the present study revealed that the KAP level in regard to the biological hazardous effects of X-ray and protection was low to average among dental students. It is recommended that the syllabus of dental radiology should be expanded to provide clinical knowledge regarding radiation hazards and protection, so that students are well grounded with the principles of dental radiography.
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