|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 404-408
Effects of incorporation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on properties of heat cured acrylic resin
Israa M Hummudi1, Ghasak G Faisal2, Ihab Nafea Yassen1, Ahmed Hazim Kassoob1, Essam Makky3
1 Department of Prosthetic Dental Techniques, College of Health and Medical Techniques, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Fundamental Dental and Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University, Kuantan, Malaysia
3 Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Kuantan, Malaysia
|Date of Submission||08-Apr-2023|
|Date of Decision||02-Jul-2023|
|Date of Acceptance||05-Jul-2023|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Aug-2023|
Dr. Ghasak G Faisal
Department of Fundamental Dental and Medical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Dentistry, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Sulatan Ahmad Shah, Kuantan 25200, Pahang
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Aim: Herbal treatment has recently been validated as a safe and effective alternative to antimicrobial drugs due to its safety and efficiency. Eurycoma longifolia root jack root extract (E.L.) has been documented for its antibacterial and antifungal properties. Acrylic resin is used to produce dentures. However, due to its porous nature, it is a good site for Candida albicans to adhere and cause infection. The aim of the presented study was to evaluate the effects of adding E.L. root extract to acrylic resin on the properties of heat polymerized denture material. Materials and Methods: Sixty circular-shaped (30 mm × 2 mm) specimens were prepared from heat-polymerized acrylic resin in total. Then they were divided into one control group and two experimental groups, which were prepared by adding 0.5 gm of E.L. root extract to 10 mL monomer. Polymer powder was added to the monomer. The conventional water bath method was used for mixing, packing, and processing. Specimens were polished and finished after processing, and then maintained for 48 h in distilled water. Shore D, profilometer tester and color recognition sensor were employed to measure the surface hardness, roughness and color changes. Statistical analysis was conducted via independent sample t test. Results: The results indicated no significant change in roughness values concerning the study groups. Hardness results showed a higher mean value for the experimental group in compared to the control. However, the independent sample t test showed no significant change between the study groups. In color change test, no statistically significant change between experimental and control regarding red and green colors mean values whereas blue color mean values showed significant alteration and color change tests. Conclusion: The study concluded that E. longifolia root extract showed better surface hardness and no effect on color alteration and surface roughness after incorporation to heat cure acrylic resin, which means it can be used as a natural safe antimicrobial agent incorporated into the resin.
Keywords: Acrylic Resin, Color Alteration, Eurycoma longifolia, Hardness, Roughness
|How to cite this article:|
Hummudi IM, Faisal GG, Yassen IN, Kassoob AH, Makky E. Effects of incorporation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on properties of heat cured acrylic resin. J Int Oral Health 2023;15:404-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Hummudi IM, Faisal GG, Yassen IN, Kassoob AH, Makky E. Effects of incorporation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on properties of heat cured acrylic resin. J Int Oral Health [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Sep 25];15:404-8. Available from: https://www.jioh.org/text.asp?2023/15/4/404/384665
| Introduction|| |
Heat-polymerized acrylic resin is still utilized as the basic material for dentures because it is simple to work with, affordable, and has a color that resembles the adjacent tissue. The inadequacies of heat-polymerized resins include their capacity to absorb water and their porosity characteristics, which can influence the nature of acrylic such as roughness, hardness, and discoloration over time.,
Natural-looking denture teeth and the stippled surface of the denture have more concave surfaces for the accumulation of debris, plaque, and stains, which makes cleaning difficult for the patient. The most prevalent type of candidiasis and a typical pathogenic response of denture-bearing mucosa is denture-induced stomatitis. Although there are several contributing factors to denture stomatitis, Candida albicans, in particular, plays a significant role in adhesion.
More C. albicans adhesion is observed on the tissue surface of dentures than on the outer surface, indicating that the denture serves as a cause of contamination and that yeast adhesion to the denture’s surface is a typical precondition for the habitation of the palate. The adhesion of Candida to suitable area of denture forms the first stage in establishment and the growth of pathogenesis.
Many studies supported using antifungal medications to treat oral candidiasis, however, there were numerous disadvantages, including the development of resistant species, systemic antifungal medications have toxicity and drug interaction restrictions.
This necessitates the search for new therapeutic strategies, such as the use of herbal extracts with antifungal agents against C. albicans. Antibacterial compounds are found naturally in plants. Plant-based medications are a component of the traditional healthcare system; in addition compounds obtained from plants have been scientifically proven to have antibacterial effects. Herbal medications are more beneficial, safer, and also have less side effects. They have low mammalian toxicity and are simple to handle. One medicinal plant that is widely used by the people in Malaysia and south East Asia is a tree known as Eurycoma longifolia Jack. It belongs to the Simaroubaceae family. It is also identified as Tongkat Ali tree.,,Eurycoma longifolia Jack is a wild shrubby, tall, slender tree, slowly growing in a sandy soil. Its leaves are green, compound, and pinnate in shape and can reach to 1 m long. The leaflets are lanceolate with smooth margins; 5–20 cm by 1.5–6 cm. E.L. plant has reddish, tiny, unisexual, densely packed flowers. The drupes are ovoid in shape with a distinguished ridge and when they ripe they turn dark reddish brown. The root extract has been documented to have antibacterial properties toward several pathogenic bacteria, and it also possesses antifungal properties against C. albicans isolated from oral cavity.,,,
The root extract of E. longifolia Jack contains a spectrum of bioactive chemicals that have diverse biological activities ranging from antimalarial, cytotoxic, and aphrodisiac properties.,
One of the common complications of oral prosthetics is predisposition to infection. From this perspective we can hypothesize that this extract can be of benefit if used in conjunction with dental materials used to produce dental prosthetics to. This research was carried out to estimate the influence of plant (E. longifolia) jack extract addition on some properties of heat-polymerized resin material.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The mode applied in this study is experimental with control group design. The specimens in this study used circular type hot cured resin with dimension of 30 mm × 2 mm. The samples were numbered to 10 pieces in each group. The whole specimens in this work were 60 that include 20 surface roughness, 20 surface hardness, and 20 color changed samples.
The molds were prepared following the conventional flasking procedure for complete dentures, before use, separating medium was applied to the plastic patterns and left to dry. Type IV dental stone mixed according to the manufacturer’s specifications in the ratio (powder to water 100 g/25 mL) was poured into the lower part of the metal flask. Then metal patterns were inserted into the stone, when the investing stone set after 30–45 min. It was opened, separated, coated with petroleum jelly (separating medium) and let to dry, and then the flask’s top was attached to the invested one and full with stone on the vibrator, after the stone was completely set, the 2 parts of flask were carefully separated, the patterns were removed from the mold. To prepare for packing with acrylic dough, the two halves of the flask were coated with the separating medium.,
Preparation and mixing acrylic
In this study, pink heat-cured acrylic (RODEX, Istanbul, Turkey) was employed. In control group, it was mixed according to the manufacturer’s instructions (3 g of powder to 1 mL of liquid), whereas in the experimental group, 0.5 g of extract was dissolved in 10 mL of monomer, and the solutions were put on a shaker. The extracts were subsequently filtered using Whatman filter paper. Following the manufacturer’s instructions, the powder and liquid were finally blended together (3 g powder to 1 mL liquid). After adding the liquid to a clean and dry mixing glass jar, the powder was gradually added. The flask’s two halves were separated with a separating medium before being packed with acrylic dough. The mixture was then stirred with a wax knife for 45 s which was tightly secured and left at room temperature until reaching the dough stage. Packing, trial, and final closure were complete conventionally. After 90 min of curing, the temperature was raised for 30 min to boiling point at 74ºC. Finishing of each specimens was done using acrylic stone bur for two minutes with low speed then tungsten carbide bur for two minutes and finally sand paper (150) grit for one minute. All burs used for finishing procedure were cylindrical in shape to ensure parallel cutting of the bur to the surface of the specimen (to minimize flash, irregularities and equalized the pressure)., Low speed polishing was carried out in the dental lathe unit (1425 rpm). The distance (1–2 mm) between the specimen and the brush was firm. Each specimen’s polishing took place for a total of 2 min., Before testing, all specimens were put in a glass jar with distilled water and preserved in the incubator for 48 h at 37°C.
Surface roughness testing procedure
The testing of surface roughness (Ra) was achieved using (profilometer) digital surface tester meter device (T.R.220, Germany). All specimens were set on stable bases, and the device was adjusted by lightly touching the specimen surface with the stylus. The reading displayed on the digital scale when the stylus moved down the specimen’s 11 mm-long surface in the proper direction. Each specimen was given three readings in μm after drying. The final value of the surface will be determined by averaging these readings.
Surface hardness (shore D) test
In this study, a shore D hardness tester (Shore D, HT-6510A, BYQTER, China) was employed to measure the indentation or hardness of the specimens. The shore D hardness equipment was positioned vertically above a flat specimen on a level, firm platform. The recording was obtained from the reading scale D directly. The distance between the specimen surface and the hardness tester’s indenter was 5 and 12 mm. The load was around (5 N). On each specimen, three spots with a 6 mm spacing between them were marked, and the hardness value was computed using the average of these three readings with scale D. After taking the measurements directly from the scale, the reading was calculated.
Color changes test
The specimens were examined for color values using a color recognition sensor (TCS230, China) that gives data concerning proportions of red, green, and blue in each specimen. The system setup consisted of the color sensor connected to Arduino Uno microcontroller that was programmed to process the data received from the sensor and view them through Arduino IDE software from C programming language, USA. In form of three values based on basic colors (red, green, and blue). The investigation was started by tacking the baseline values of a white background which were constant (red = 80, green = 82, and blue = 58). When values rise, the color is connected with more brightness or whiteness and less color proportion. For statistical analysis, each specimen was evaluated, and data were collected and saved.
| Results|| |
Surface roughness test
The descriptive statistical results for the roughness data showed no apparent change in mean values between the control groups and experimental as in [Table 1]. The t test results also demonstrated no significant variation in roughness values between the groups (P > 0.05).
Surface hardness test
The descriptive statistical results showed a superior hardness value for the experimental group in evaluation with the control data. This was confirmed with the higher variance (standard deviations) for control compared to experimental as in [Table 2]. However, the t test presented no significant change concerning the study groups (P > 0.05).
Color changes test
According to [Table 3], there was no statistically major variance concerning the control group and experimental regarding red and green colors mean values (P > 0.05). However, blue color mean values showed significant variance among the control and experimental groups (P < 0.05).
| Discussion|| |
With the goal of improving denture wearers’ oral health, several researches recommended the incorporation of antifungal agents into Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), which may help in reducing denture-associated fungal infections.
Herbal treatment is a very reliable substitute to antimicrobial agents as it has little to no adverse effects. As a result, medicinal plant extracts are becoming more prevalent around the world, and wide research is being conducted on this topic regularly to ensure its biological activity; therefore, this investigation was based on the E. longifolia Jack root extract as a natural herbal remedy with antifungal properties, into denture base with the evaluation of important properties as the surface hardness, roughness, and color changes.
This study is the first one to use E. longifolia Jack extract as an antifungal agent to incorporate into acrylic resin to provide protection against denture stomatitis and fungal infections.
The result of surface roughness test appeared that experimental group (extract) don’t have effect on the surface of the sample , thus there were no major differencse among control and extract group, this is due to the extract is distributed evenly throughout the polymeric matrix, creating a more level surface layer. Moreover because of its chemical response with acrylic resin, the extract was able to spread on the matrix face, closing the holes in the resin material., In addition, roughness of surface refers with the outermost coat of the sample surface and evaluated just from the acrylic resin sample’s exterior and not its interior. This is in line with results by Alwafy et al., that henna and silver nano-particles, as an improver to the resin, in significantly decreased the roughness of the acrylic specimens, whereas Nawasrah et al. revealed that henna is added to PMMA base material, which greatly improves the surface roughness of the latter.
The result of hardness test appeared that natural plant extract showed better surface hardness than the control group; however, it was not statistically significant; this could be due to increased polymer density after polymerization cross-linking, resulting in cross links with minimal space, such process has produced distortion to reduce space that could lead to hard polymer. Moreover, unreacted monomer with polymer after polymerization and this can be explained by the water sorption phenomena of methyl methacrylate denture base.,, Having been established such that there is a relation between residual monomer and water sorption, for example, if residual monomer is existing, as water sorption increases, less monomer conversion occurs, which may result in increased sorption this approves with Al-Nema et al. and Hatim et al. which showed that the adding of ginger, eucalyptus and meramia and oils to acrylic resin increased its hardness ,but disagree with Shukur who showed the addition of 20% tea tree oil to heat acrylic resin reduces significantly the hardness. A study by Nawasrah et al. showed that adding henna at different concentrations considerably reduced the hardness of PMMA. Also with work of Nawasrah et al., who showed that adding of henna at variable concentrations to PMMA considerably decreasing hardness.
For color change test, the color stability is considered as one of the greatest main clinical possessions for dental materials. Any color alteration may perhaps be a pointer for damaging or aging of materials.
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors may result in a color change of polymeric material; the intrinsic factors include resin discoloration and matrix changes which occur through aged progression of the material, whereas the extrinsic factors can also cause discoloration such as thermal changes, stains accumulation, food artificial dyes, handling by the patient, and cleaning procedure.
The color analysis results showed no significant difference with regards to red and green colors. However, the only difference was statistically found in blue values between the study groups with bluer color concentration for the experimental rather than the controller group. The visual observation for the study specimens showed no major difference in colors and appearance of the modified acrylic specimens compared with the control. This leads to the conclusion that this modification will have no impact on acrylic resin general color.
The results of this study showed that E.L. extract can be safely used as an antifungal agent and this gives a possible future direction of possibility to incorporate this extract and produce new acrylic resin that can be resistant to fungal infection.
| Conclusion|| |
Eurucoma longifolia Jack root extract may have none or very minimal adverse effect and can be used as antifungal agents without any effect of it on surface hardness, roughness, and color changes of heat polymerized acrylic resins, which means it can be used as a natural, safe, antimicrobial agent incorporated into the resin.
We would like to thank International Islamic University Malaysia and University Malaysia Pahang for funding this project under grant no. SRCG 20-025-0025.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
All authors have contributed significantly to this research and each one had a specific role in designing, conducting, analysing and writing this research.
Ethical policy and Institutional Review board statement
Patient declaration of consent
Data availability statement
All data related to this research is stored at Department of Prosthetic Dental Techniques, College of Health and Medical Techniques, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
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[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]