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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 342-348

Application of the health belief model in oral hygiene practice (brushing/flossing): A narrative review

Preventive Department, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia; Faculty of Dentistry, University of Science and Technology, Omdurman, Sudan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Elwalid F Nasir
Preventive Department, College of Dentistry, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_204_21

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Aim: Application of the health belief model helps explain when people would/would not engage in preventive health behaviors. Several studies were conducted to explore the model’s applicability in oral health; however, review studies on oral hygiene practice are scarce. The present study aimed to review the application of the model concerning oral hygiene practice and to identify the frequently used constructs of the model. Materials and Methods: This review focussed on the studies published during 2010–2020 using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Research Gate, Cochrane Library, and the keywords used are health belief model, oral hygiene practice, brushing, and flossing. Twenty studies that fulfilled the criteria were included in the present review; among them, 12 were cross-sectional. Cluster sampling was the most frequent used by seven studies. Results: Almost all studies reported verifying the validity/reliability of the instruments used except three, and Cronbach α was the most used. The most used analyses were regression (linear/binomial) by 13 studies, besides χ2, t-test, Mann–Whitney, analysis of variance, and Wilcoxon, whereas three studies used statistical models. Nine studies used five constructs, whereas six studies used the extended model with six constructs. Self-efficacy and barriers were the most significant predictors of oral hygiene practice, followed by susceptibility, severity, and benefits. The least significantly related was cues to action, and only one study reported no significant association. Conclusion: This review presented the validity of the psychometric properties of the model in explaining the oral hygiene practice; the review might have a limitation as it is limited by only the last 10 years beside the English language. This review might form a quick reference for the studies during the period of review.

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