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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 158-162

The effect of smoking on the RANKL and Cathepsin K levels in GCF among chronic periodontitis patients: A case–control clinical study

1 Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamalee High Road, Chennai 600077, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Periodontology, SRM Dental College, Bharathi Salai, Ramapuram, Chennai 600089, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Priya L Gajendran
Department of Periodontology, Saveetha Dental College, No. 162, Poonamalee High Road, Chennai 600077, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jioh.jioh_342_21

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Aim: To compare the levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor β ligand (RANKL) and Cathepsin K (CSTK) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) between smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: Eighty male patients who were systemically healthy and diagnosed with CP were recruited in this case–control study. Based on convenient sampling, they were allocated into two groups. Group A had 40 subjects who were smokers diagnosed with CP, and Group B had 40 non-smoking CP patients. Patients who had the habit of smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day for a period of 5 or more years were included in Group A, and those with no history of cigarette smoking were recruited in Group B. The baseline parameters such as probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment levels, bleeding index, plaque index scores, and pack years were noted prior to GCF collection. The collected GCF samples were analyzed for RANKL and CSTK levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The intergroup comparison of the clinical parameters was done using Student’s t-test. The comparison of cytokine values between Groups A and B was done using the Mann–Whitney U test. Correlation between the cytokine levels with the clinical parameters, in Groups A and B, was done using Kendall’s tau_b correlation analysis. The mean RANKL levels were not statistically significant between Group A and Group B (P = 0.073). Smokers with CP has significantly higher levels of CSTK when compared with non-smokers (P=0.037 and <0.05, respectively). The RANKL levels showed a positive correlation with PD (r=0.300, P=0.007) and pack years (r=0.467, P=0.000) in Group A. A significant positive correlation between RANKL and CSTK levels was observed in smokers with CP (r=0.246, P=0.026). Conclusion: The RANKL levels were not significantly altered by smoking. The levels of CSTK are significantly higher in smokers with periodontitis when compared with non-smokers with periodontitis. The positive correlation obtained in the smokers group may suggest that smoking may play a crucial role in modulating the cytokines levels of RANKL and CSTK.

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