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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 539-548

Perspective on metal leachables from orthodontic appliances: A scoping review


Cluster of Craniofacial and Biomaterial Sciences, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (IPPT), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Noor A Ahmad Shafiai
Cluster of Craniofacial and Biomaterial Sciences, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (IPPT), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang.
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JIOH.JIOH_52_21

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Aim: Metal ion leaching from orthodontic fixed appliances can be retrieved through in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and this study aims at reporting the methodology employed in previous studies for assessing metal leachables from orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: Available reports from Google Scholar were compiled using PRISMA guidelines from 2009 to 2020, with certain keywords in identifying studies reporting on metal leaching from orthodontic appliances. A total of 1390 studies were identified and after the exclusion of articles, 69 final articles were reviewed. Data such as the types of materials, incubation medium, duration, type of cells, assay, and factors for corrosion were summarized. Results: Metal leachable from orthodontic appliances mostly occurred through a corrosion process caused by internal structural factors (such as metal composition and particle distribution), as well as external factors (such as media composition, pH, and biofilm). The studies involved various methodologies of research in metal ion release and cytotoxicity determination. Conclusion: Nickel was the most common ion investigated, followed by chromium in this study of cytotoxicity of orthodontic appliances during the past 10 years. The trends and needs in wearing orthodontic appliances should receive a different perspective with regards to metal leaching, which may give rise to adverse effects in long-term application.


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