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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1012-1015

Assessment of Calcium, Magnesium, and Fluoride in Bottled and Natural Drinking Water from Jazan Province of Saudi Arabia and a Brief Review on Their Role in Tooth


1 Formerly Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Professor, Department of Oral Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
3 Undergraduate Students, Department of Oral Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4 Lecturer, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Nandimandalam Venkata Vani
Department of Oral Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Background: The minerals in the drinking water play a critical role in tooth remineralization apart from their systemic effects. This study estimated the quantity of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and fluoride (F) of commercially available bottled waters and natural drinking water in Jazan and compared them with their labeled values. The role of these minerals on tooth remineralization is briefly reviewed. Materials and Methods: The concentration of Ca, Mg, and F was determined for 12 local brands and 6 imported brands of bottled water along with 8 sources of natural drinking water. Their concentrations were determined on the basis of analytical ion chromatography using a Dionex ICS 5000 ion chromatography system at the Food and Drug Authority laboratory, Saudi Arabia. Result: The mean Ca concentration in local brands of bottled water (11.4 ± 9.8) is significantly less compared to imported brands (51.7 ± 18.7) and natural water (47.4 ± 58.5) and also below the optimum level (40-80 mg/dl). Similarly, the level of Mg is also lower in local brands (4.6 ± 5.6), but their differences with regard to imported brands (15.1 ± 14.6) and natural source (16.7 ± 27.1) are not statistically significant. The F content in local brand (0.9 ± 0.1) is in the optimum range (0.5-1.0 mg/dl) higher than imported brands (0.4 ± 0.6) and natural sources (0.3 ± 0.4). There is no significant difference between the labeled and estimated Ca, Mg, and F levels among the local and imported brands. Conclusion: The local bottled water has suboptimal Ca and Mg with optimal F content. Although the imported bottled water and natural water have sufficient Ca and Mg, their F concentration is very minimal. Drinking water with an optimum level of Ca, Mg, and provides a favorable environment to enhance the regeneration processes of the mineralized tissue in tooth carious process. Knowledge of the mineral content of the drinking water and their health significance is essential to both public and health-care professionals.


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