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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 10  |  Page : 964-968

Common, Rare, and Individual Oro-dental Findings in People with Down Syndrome

1 Professor, Department of Genetics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
2 Department of Orthodontics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania
3 Genetic Lab, Molecular Genetics, Bucharest, Romania
4 Department of Preventive Dentistry, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

Correspondence Address:
Emilia Severin
Department of Genetics, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 24, Kiseleff Av., 011346 Bucharest, Romania

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background: The severity of oro-facial abnormalities varies from an individual with Down syndrome (DS) to another being very hard to predict how much a fetus/newborn will be affected as a child or an adult. DS has the highest incidence at birth as any chromosomal abnormality, and every pediatric dentist can expect to deal with some dental problems related to DS. The study provides insight into the pattern of oro-dental findings associated with chromosomal abnormality involved. Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis of 51 persons with DS phenotype was performed. The oro-dental findings were described performing the complete extra- and intra-oral examinations and radiological evaluations. Results: Karyotype examinations revealed three types of chromosomal abnormalities: Free/full trisomy 21, translocation, and mosaicism. Most of the oro-dental findings including teeth, gingiva, tongue, palate, and occlusal anomalies were variable in both frequency and expression showing no differences between standard and nonstandard trisomies (P > 0.05). The most common dental anomaly was hypodontia followed by microdontia. All patients presented occlusal problems. The eruption of both dentitions was delayed in most cases. Full trisomy 21 is not correlated with more severe anomalies and cannot be considered a significant risk factor. Conclusions: Despite the fact that cytogenetic analysis plays an important role in the diagnosis of DS, it was not helpful to predict the severity of oro-dental features. The study highlighted the individual combinations of developmental anomalies in DS people and the individual dental problems associated with DS. The study supports the special oral health services for DS people.

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